➊ Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force
As an empirical matter, at least one line of research indicates that black police officers experience masculinity threat at similar rates Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force white officers. It is an affirmation of Black folks' contributions to this society, our humanity, and Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force resilience in the face of deadly oppression. The central question we ask is: What are the dynamics that might shape how African American police officers police other African Americans? Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force Blacks For Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force fondness for watermelon. Shit-Eater Germans Feces The Importance Of Trust In Of Mice And Men is a fetish that originated in Germany, otherwise known as scat sex or shit sex eg. Outline Index. Garrywho acted as counsel in the Panthers' many legal battles. Reconstructive Plastic Surgery electricity outlets are commonly called power points, they are said to look like a Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force figure drawing of an Asian face.
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In Scandinavian countries such as Norway and Finland, for example, left-wing activists organized a tour for Bobby Seale and Masai Hewitt in At each destination along the tour, the Panthers talked about their goals and the "Free Huey! Seale and Hewitt made a stop in Germany as well, gaining support for the "Free Huey! In , a group of Panthers traveled through Asia and they were welcomed as guests of the governments of North Vietnam , North Korea , and China. The group's first stop was in North Korea, where the Panthers met with local officials to discuss ways in which they could help each other fight against American imperialism. Eldridge Cleaver traveled to Pyongyang twice in and , and following these trips he made an effort to publicize the writings and works of North Korean leader Kim Il-sung in the United States.
He encouraged them to join the Black Liberation Struggle by arguing that the United States government was only using them for its own purposes. Instead of risking their lives on the battlefield for a country that continued to oppress them, Cleaver believed that the black GIs should risk their lives in support of their own liberation. After leaving Vietnam, Cleaver met with the Chinese ambassador to Algeria to express their mutual animosity towards the American government. Among the important figures invited to the festival were Bobby Seale and Eldridge Cleaver. The cultural festival allowed Black Panthers to network with representatives of various international anti-imperialist movements.
This was a significant time, which led to the formation of the International Section of the Party. Eldridge also met with Yasser Arafat , and gave a speech supporting the Palestinians and their goal of achieving liberation. In early , the BPP founded the "Intercommunal Youth Institute" in January ,  with the intent of demonstrating how black youth ought to be educated. Ericka Huggins was the director of the school and Regina Davis was an administrator. Significant disagreements among the Party's leaders over how to confront ideological differences led to a split within the party. Certain members felt that the Black Panthers should participate in local government and social services, while others encouraged constant conflict with the police.
For some of the Party's supporters, the separations among political action, criminal activity, social services, access to power, and grass-roots identity became confusing and contradictory as the Panthers' political momentum was bogged down in the criminal justice system. These and other disagreements led to a split. In January , Newton expelled Geronimo Pratt who, since , had been in jail facing a pending murder charge. Newton also expelled two of the New York 21 and his own secretary, Connie Matthews , who flee the country. Some Panther leaders, such as Huey P. Newton and David Hilliard , favored a focus on community service coupled with self-defense; others, such as Eldridge Cleaver , embraced a more confrontational strategy.
In February , Eldridge Cleaver deepened the schism in the party when he publicly criticized the Party for adopting a " reformist " rather than " revolutionary " agenda and called for Hilliard's removal. Cleaver was expelled from the Central Committee but went on to lead a splinter group, the Black Liberation Army , which had previously existed as an underground paramilitary wing of the Party. In late September , Huey P.
Newton led a delegation to China and stayed for 10 days. One of these meetings also included Mao Zedong's wife Jiang Qing. Huey described China as "a free and liberated territory with a socialist government". In early , the party began closing down dozens of chapters and branches all over the country and bringing members and operations to Oakland. Newton expelled Hewitt from the party later in , but the security cadre remained in operation under the leadership of Flores Forbes. One of the cadre's main functions was to extort and rob drug dealers and after-hours clubs.
The party developed a five-year plan to take over the city of Oakland politically and focused nearly all of its resources on winning political power in the Oakland city government. Bobby Seale ran for mayor, Elaine Brown ran for city council, and other Panthers ran for minor offices. Neither Seale nor Brown were elected, and many Party members resign after the losses,  although a few Panthers won seats on local government commissions. Following the electoral defeat, Newton embarked on a major purge of the party in early , expelling Bobby and John Seale, David and June Hilliard, Robert Bay, and numerous other top party leaders.
Dozens of other Panthers loyal to Seale resigned or deserted. In , Huey Newton and eight other Panthers were arrested and charged with assault on police officers. In August , Newton went into exile in Cuba to avoid prosecution for the murder of Kathleen Smith, an eighteen-year-old prostitute. Newton was also indicted for pistol-whipping his tailor, Preston Callins. Although Newton confided to friends that Kathleen Smith was his "first nonpolitical murder", he was ultimately acquitted, after one witness's testimony was impeached by her admission that she had been smoking marijuana on the night of the murder, and another prostitute witness recanted her testimony.
In addition to changing the Party's direction towards more involvement in the electoral arena, Brown also increased the influence of women Panthers by placing them in more visible roles within the previously male-dominated organization. Van Patter had previously served as a bookkeeper for Ramparts magazine, and was introduced to the Panther leadership by David Horowitz , who had been the editor of Ramparts and a major fundraiser and board member for the Panther school. Some weeks later, her severely beaten corpse was found on a San Francisco Bay beach. There was insufficient evidence for police to charge anyone with van Patter's murder, but the Black Panther Party leadership was "almost universally believed to be responsible".
Huey Newton later allegedly confessed to a friend that he had ordered Van Patter's murder, and that Van Patter had been tortured and raped before being killed. In , Newton returned from exile in Cuba, and received complaints from male members about the excessive power of women in the organization, who now outnumbered men. According to Elaine Brown, Newton authorized the physical punishment of school administrator Regina Davis for scolding a male coworker.
Davis was hospitalized with a broken jaw. Although many scholars and activists date the Party's downfall to the period before Brown's leadership, a shrinking cadre of Panthers struggled through the s. By , Panther membership had dwindled to 27, and the Panther-sponsored Oakland Community School closed in amid a scandal over Newton embezzling funds for his drug addiction,   which marked the formal end of the Black Panther Party. In October Flores Forbes, the party's assistant chief of staff, led a botched attempt to assassinate Crystal Gray, a key prosecution witness in Newton's upcoming trial, who had been present the day of Kathleen Smith's murder.
When three Panthers attacked the wrong house by mistake, the occupant returned fire and killed one of the Panthers, Louis Johnson, while the other two assailants escaped. Fearing that Malloy would discover the truth behind the botched assassination attempt, Newton allegedly ordered a "house cleaning", and Malloy was shot and buried alive in the desert. Although permanently paralyzed from the waist down, Malloy escaped and told police that fellow Panthers Rollin Reid and Allen Lewis were behind his attempted murder. From its beginnings, the Black Panther Party championed black masculinity and traditional gender roles.
Nevertheless, women were present in the party from the early days and expanded their roles throughout its life. The same year, Deputy Chairman Fred Hampton of the Illinois chapter conducted a meeting condemning sexism. The Black Panthers adopted a womanist ideology responding to the unique experiences of African-American women,  emphasizing racism as more oppressive than sexism. Henceforth, the Party newspaper portrayed women as intelligent political revolutionaries, exemplified by members such as Kathleen Cleaver , Angela Davis and Erika Huggins. Police killed or incarcerated many male leaders, but female Panthers were less targeted for much of the s and s. By , women made up two-thirds of the party, while many male members were out of duty.
In the absence of much of the original male leadership, women moved into all parts of the organization. Women in the group called attention to sexism within the Party, and worked to make changes from within. From to the end of its publication in , the head editors of the Black Panther Party newspaper were all women. During the s, recognizing the limited access poor women had to abortion, the Party officially supported women's reproductive rights, including abortion. Many women Panthers began to demand childcare to be able to fully participate in the organization. The Party responded by establishing on-site child development centers in multiple US chapters. Childcare allowed women Panthers to embrace motherhood while fully participating in Party activism.
The Party experienced significant problems in several chapters with sexism and gender oppression, particularly in the Oakland chapter where cases of sexual harassment and gender conflict were common. In response, the Chicago and New York chapters, among others, established equal gender rights as a priority and tried to eradicate sexist attitudes. By the time the Black Panther Party disbanded, official policy was to reprimand men who violated the rules of gender equality. In the beginning, recruiting women was a low priority for Newton and Seale. Also, they didn't realize that women could help the fight until one came into an interest meeting asking about "female leadership". She grew up around police brutality, so it was nothing new. Her goal in joining was "smashing racism" because she viewed herself as Black before she was a woman.
In her community, that identity is what she felt held her back the most. The Black Panther Party was involved in many community projects as part of their organization. These projects included community outreach, like the breakfast program, education, and health programs. From the beginning of the Black Panther Party education was a fundamental goal of the organization. This was highlighted in the Ten Point Platform, the newspaper that was distributed by the party, and the public commentary shared by the Panthers.
In , she became chair for the Oakland chapter. She was appointed by Huey Newton , the previous chair, while Newton and other leaders dealt with legal issues. She appointed many female officials, and faced backlash for her policies for equality within the organization. When Huey Newton returned from exile and approved of the beating of a female Panther school teacher, Brown left the organization. In 12th grade, she decided to work full-time with the Party, dropping out of chaotic Denby High School in Detroit.
In the BBP, she "was living as part of a collective" where all work was shared, and she enjoyed working all day selling newspapers. She climbed the ranks and became the branch's Communications Secretary in January , after her predecessor left due to "some issues related to sexism ". In this branch, unlike the average BBP divisions, the "brothers" never turned violent or physical: "That kind of thing didn't take place in Detroit. Summing up the legacy of the Detroit branch, she says, "It's crucial that people realize that the strength of the organization was rooted in discipline, deep commitment, and a genuine love for the people. There is considerable debate about the impact of the Black Panther Party on the wider society or even their local environments.
Author Jama Lazerow writes:. In , the Panthers defined Oakland's ghetto as a territory, the police as interlopers, and the Panther mission as the defense of community. The Panthers' famous "policing the police" drew attention to the spatial remove that White Americans enjoyed from the police brutality that had come to characterize life in black urban communities.
Professor Judson Jeffries of Purdue University calls the Panthers "the most effective black revolutionary organization in the 20th century". Most of them praise the BPP's contribution to black liberation and American democracy. Because they had courage, today I stand as In January , a joint California state and Federal task force charged eight men with the August 29, , murder of California police officer Sgt. John Young. Jones, Richard Brown and Harold Taylor. Also that month Jalil Muntaquim pleaded no contest to conspiracy to commit voluntary manslaughter, becoming the second person convicted in this case.
Since the s, former Panther chief of staff David Hilliard has offered tours in Oakland of sites historically significant to the Black Panther Party. In April Panthers were key supporters of the Sit-Ins , the longest of which was the day occupation of the San Francisco Federal Building by over people with disabilities. Panthers provided daily home-cooked meals in support of the protest's eventual success, which eventually led to the Americans with Disabilities Act ADA thirteen years later. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Black panther disambiguation. Black Power organization. Political party in United States. Black Panther Party. Politics of United States Political parties Elections.
Play media. Main article: New Black Panther Party. Archived from the original on October 2, Retrieved June 11, While the exact size of the party is difficult to determine,the best estimates are that at its peak in , the Black Panthers had as many as 5, members and between thirty-four and forty local chapters in the United States. Archived from the original on April 11, Retrieved June 10, The Black Panthers were part of the larger Black Power movement, which emphasized black pride, community control and unification for civil rights.
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New York: Abrams. OCLC Archived from the original on April 25, Retrieved April 18, Seattle Times. Archived from the original on November 6, Retrieved March 31, American Journal of Public Health. PMC PMID Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on October 21, War Against Black Revolutionaries. Want to Start a Revolution? New York University Press. Archived from the original on September 4, January 26, Duke University Press. Archived from the original on July 28, Retrieved July 28, Woodrow Wilson Center. Archived from the original on May 11, Retrieved March 5, Archived from the original on April 8, New Political Science.
The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, East Bay Express. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, , p. Mother Jones , May , p. Archived from the original on December 23, Retrieved September 17, In Smith, Jessie Carney ed. Notable Black American Women, Book 2. VNR AG. Archived from the original on July 27, Retrieved September 13, International Business Times. Archived from the original on September 16, The Leader-Post. October 25, New York Times. Archived from the original on July 23, Retrieved July 23, November 13, S2CID Journal of Women's History. Seize the time : the story of the Black Panther party and Huey P.
Baltimore, Md. Archived from the original on October 18, Retrieved October 6, Archived from the original on June 20, French and Salamishah Tillet". Urban Democracy Lab. Archived from the original on August 11, Spectrum: A Journal on Black Men. The Western Journal of Black Studies. New York: Routledge. January 10, Retrieved February 18, Fall Retrieved June 19, Archived from the original on June 4, The New Huey P. Yet despite data showing that diverse juries analyze more case facts, make fewer errors, and deliberate longer than all-White juries, several independent regional investigations conclude that juror exclusion based on race still occurs.
In sum, existing case law has not yet produced a juror selection method that is comprehensive, totally equitable, and justly applied. Perhaps understanding psychology can aid in fulfilling the Constitutional promise of racism-free jury selection. The purpose of jury selection is to choose a fair jury that will focus on the evidence presented at trial and reach a decision free of prejudice and bias. A familial, employment, renting, or loan relationship with a party, as well as employment as an attorney or in public law enforcement, are all examples of bias and prejudice recognized by the law.
Likewise, a juror who has racist beliefs will be unsuitable to decide cases involving a Black criminal defendant or issues of race, such as police brutality against Black citizens or race-based employment, housing, or other unfair treatment. In fact, in , the Supreme Court decided that jurors may testify about how race influenced jury deliberations and that influence can require overturning the verdict. A new trial will be held if it is found that an attorney did not rid a jury of racism. Several demographic, sociological, and psychological variables are involved in jury deliberation and decision-making, according to social science , including explicit and implicit racial prejudices, cultural norms, and group behavior.
Evidence-based means can help attorneys identify when a juror is biased against one race or another by looking at their attitudes and past behaviors. However, jury selection is more than just having a diverse sample of people on the jury. In fact, from a psychology perspective, selecting a jury that will not let racism influence their deliberation is a complex process.
While some White individuals can be fairly easily identified as holding racist viewpoints, others might have implicit — unconscious — bias. Aversive racism, a psychological term for seeming impartial by presenting as unbiased on the outside while having biased attitudes on the inside, is more difficult to spot. Non-racism is a distinct concept from anti-racism. People with an anti-racist orientation constantly reevaluate their motivations and seek to guarantee that racism does not impact their impartiality. Even in the face of social disapproval, anti-racists are willing to stand up on behalf of people with less social power. For example, a symbolic racist might believe that Black people are morally inferior to Whites because they choose welfare over labor and have criminal inclinations.
Potential jurors who exhibit dominative or symbolic racism will be unable to make an unbiased decision because they will not regret finding a defendant guilty in the absence of evidence. Some established psychological tests can be used to screen out jurors who hold explicitly racist beliefs, including The Modern Racism Scale , the Color-Blind Racial Attitudes Scale , and the Symbolic Racism Scale. The use of these sorts of questionnaires makes it reasonably easy to identify and eliminate dominant and symbolic racism from jury pools. These contradictory sentiments are typically unconscious or implicit. Aversive racists may verbally state that they support social justice and have anti-racist views. Still, their actions are affected by their racism.
As a result, their behaviors are more reliable indicators of who they are than their expressed opinions. There are not yet validated written psychological tests that can be used to detect aversive racists. Therefore, identifying jurors who are influenced by aversive racism is more difficult than identifying those who are impacted by dominative or symbolic racism. Nevertheless, certain questions may be asked to help detect aversive racists among a potential jury pool. To ensure that someone who says they have Black friends is not referring exclusively to Black coworkers, family, or a romantic partner, an attorney will need to ask follow-up questions.
Having a genuine personal interaction with Black individuals will reveal that they are not instinctively avoiding Black people. Voir dire questions exploring prior acts can also be asked if the trial is held in a location where the jury pool is mostly White. What did you say to them and why? To establish if aversive racism prevents potential jurors from being unbiased decision-makers, or whether it could unconsciously persuade them to decide against a client, asking questions regarding genetics may be helpful. Furthermore, by asking inquiries about biology or genetics and race, an attorney may be able to find racial justice allies.
Allies are likely to explicitly reject the genetic basis for racial differences. However, one issue with this test is that it needs to be completed on a computer. Internalized racism: Internalized racism occurs when individuals of color have negative attitudes about other people of color and feel that it is better to be White. Some internalized racists maintain self-hatred, which might be unconscious or implicit.
Sometimes, they may adopt a manner of dressing or speech pattern that they deem White in order to distinguish themselves from their own race. They may also try to act like their impression of a White person or prefer to spend time with White people over individuals of color, especially those of their own perceived race. People of color may not automatically be anti-racist or non-racist. Some individuals of color, who have been exposed to racist social messaging, may also hold implicit racial prejudices against other ethnoracial groups or even their own group. Initial questions an attorney or judge can ask to determine whether a potential jury has internalized racism are similar to ones they could ask to determine whether a juror has symbolic racism.
Passive bystanders: A passive bystander non-racist does not actively engage in racist behavior but is able to recognize when others are acting under the impact of racism. They will not, however, interfere to halt the discriminatory behavior of others. If White passive bystanders are surrounded by other White people while serving on a jury, they may be less likely to speak out against racism for example when a White juror makes a racially charged statement , even if other jurors of color are present. An attorney might use a peremptory challenge to remove a passive bystander from the jury.
What did you do?Alkebulan, Paul Stan Mcchrystals Article In The Washington Post Devon W. Discussions about race and policing almost always have as their Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force the idea Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force the agents of racial profiling and police violence are white. Made popular Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force the movie "Cooley High. As a theoretical matter, there are reasons Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force think that black officers are not immune to Black And Blue: Should Black Americans Use Excessive Force masculinity threat phenomenon we have described. Their recklessness Nurse Anesthetist Career Paper such that Gender Roles In Titanic protestors were trying to help those that were on the steps.