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Familial Citizenship

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Proponents debate precisely what qualifies as deliberation, but there is a general agreement that the discussion should be inclusive, free, equitable, and in some sense civil. In practical terms, deliberative democracy implies various efforts to increase the amount and the impact of public discussions. See Gutmann and Thompson for an example of a sophisticated treatment that draws on many earlier works. Concretely, that means that people should develop the aptitude, desire, knowledge, and skills that lead them to read and discuss the news and current events with diverse fellow citizens and influence the government with the views that they develop and refine by deliberation. Practices such as discussing and debating current events in school seem especially promising.

Harry C. Boyte , argues for the centrality of work to citizenship. We are not only citizens when we vote, read and discuss the news, and volunteer after school or work--which are all unpaid, voluntary activities. We are also citizens on the job; and even when we perform unpaid service, we should see our contributions as work-like in the sense that they are serious business. Citizens do not merely monitor and influence the government per the theory of deliberative democracy nor serve other people in community settings emphasized in the idea of social capital ; they also literally build, make, and maintain public goods.

They do so whether they work in the public, private, or nonprofit sectors, for pay or not. The theory of public work suggests that civic education should be highly experiential and closely related to vocational education. Young people should gain skills and agency by actually making things together. A good outcome is an individual who will be able to contribute to the commonwealth through her or his work. Albert Dzur , who holds a kindred but not identical view, emphasizes the importance of revising professional education so that professionals learn to collaborate better with laypeople. The qualities of the good citizen are not simply the skills necessary to participate in the political system. They are also the virtues that will lead one to participate, to want to participate, to have a disposition to participate.

Citizens, that is, ought to display a certain kind of disposition or character. As it turns out, and not surprisingly, given our perspective, in a democracy the virtues or traits that constitute good citizenship are also closely associated with being a good or moral person. It is the absence of these virtues or traits—that is, the absence of character—that leads some to conclude that democracy, especially in the United States, is in crisis. Missing, he argues, is a central character trait, a disposition to participate. Two groups predominate in advocating the use of character education as a way of improving democracy.

One group comprises political theorists such as Galston, Battistoni, Benjamin Barber, and Adrian Oldfield who often reflect modern-day versions of civic republicanism. This group wishes to instill or nurture [ 7 ] a willingness among our future citizens to sacrifice their self-interests for the sake of the common good. The second group does not see democratic participation as the center, but instead sees democratic participation as one aspect of overall character education. Central to the mission of our public schools, on this view, is the establishing of character traits important both to individual conduct being a good person and to a thriving democracy being a good citizen.

The unannounced leader of the second group is educational practitioner Thomas Lickona, and it includes such others as William Bennett and Patricia White. It is difficult, comments British philosopher R. Many advocates of character education are vague on just this distinction, and it might be helpful to propose that character consists of traits that are learned, while personality and temperament consist of traits that are innate. What advocates are clear on, however, is that character is the essence of what we are. The term comes from the world of engraving, from the Greek term kharakter , an instrument used for making distinctive marks.

Thus character is what marks a person or persons as distinctive. Character is not just one attribute or trait. Thus character traits are associated, if not synonymous, with virtues. So a good person and, in the context of liberal democracy, a good citizen will have these virtues. Who determines what the good is? This might be problematic. What occurs when the set of virtues of the good person clashes with the set of virtues of the good citizen? What is thought to be good in one context, even when approved by society, is not necessarily what is thought to be good in another. Should the only child of a deceased farmer stay at home to care for his ailing mother, or should he, like a good citizen, join the resistance to fight an occupying army?

What do we do when the requirements of civic education call into question the values or beliefs of what one takes to be the values of being a good person? In Mozert v. Hawkins County Board of Education just such a case occurred. Should the Mozerts and other fundamentalist Christian parents have the right to opt their children out of those classes that required their children to read selections that went against or undermined their faith? On the one hand, if they are permitted to opt out, then without those children present the class is denied the diversity of opinion on the reading selections that would be educative and a hallmark of democracy. On the other hand, if the children cannot opt out, then they are denied the right to follow their faith as they think necessary.

We can see, therefore, why educating for character has never been straightforward. William Bennett pushes for the virtues of patriotism, loyalty, and national pride; Amy Gutmann wants to see toleration of difference and mutual respect. Can a pacifist in a time of war be a patriot? Is the rebel a hero or simply a troublemaker? Should our teachers teach a prescribed morality, often closely linked to certain religious ideas and ideals? Should they teach a content only of secular values related to democratic character?

These two approaches—a prescribed moral content or values clarification—appear to form the two ends of a character education spectrum. At one end is the method of indoctrination of prescribed values and virtues, regardless of sacred or secular orientation. But here some citizens will express concern about just whose values are to be taught or, to some, imposed. At the other end of the spectrum is values clarification, [ 12 ] but this seems to be a kind of moral relativism where everything goes because nothing can be ruled out. In values clarification there is no right or wrong value to hold. Is there a middle of the spectrum that would not impose values or simply clarify values?

There is no middle path that can cut a swath through imposition on one side and clarification on the other. Here students can think about and think through what different moral situations require of persons. Even critical thinking, however, requires students to be critical about something. That is, we must presuppose the existence, if not prior inculcation, of some values about which to be critical.

What we have, then, is not a spectrum but a sequence, a developmental sequence. Character education, from this perspective, begins with the inculcation in students of specific values. But at a later date character education switches to teaching and using the skills of critical thinking on the very values that have been inculcated. The process, therefore, would consist of two phases, two developmental phases. Phase One is the indoctrination phase. Yet which values do we inculcate?

Perhaps the easiest way to begin is to focus first on those behaviors that all students must possess. Every school, in order to conduct the business of education, reinforces certain values and behaviors. Teachers demand that students sit in their seats; raise their hands before speaking; hand assignments in on time; display sportsmanship on the athletic field; be punctual when coming to class; do not cheat on their tests or homework; refrain from attacking one another on the playground, in the hallways, or in the classroom; be respectful of and polite to their elders e. From the ethos come the requisite virtues—honesty, cooperation, civility, respect, and so on. Another set of values to inculcate at this early stage is that associated with democracy.

Here the lessons are more didactic than behavioral. One point of civic education in a democracy is to raise free and equal citizens who appreciate that they have both rights and responsibilities. Students need to learn that they have freedoms, such as those found in Bill of Rights press, assembly, worship, and the like in the U. But they also need to learn that they have responsibilities to their fellow citizens and to their country. This requires teaching students to obey the law; not to interfere with the rights of others; and to honor their country, its principles, and its values. Schools must teach those traits or virtues that conduce to democratic character: cooperation, honesty, toleration, and respect.

So we inculcate in our students the values and virtues that our society honors as those that constitute good citizenship and good character. But if we inculcate a love of justice, say, is it the justice found in our laws or an ideal justice that underlies all laws? Obviously, this question will not arise in the minds of most, if any, first graders. As students mature and develop cognitively, however, such questions will arise. So a high-school student studying American History might well ask whether the Jim Crow laws found in the South were just laws simply because they were the law.

Or were they only just laws until they were discovered through argument to be unjust? Or were they always unjust because they did not live up to some ideal conception of justice? Then we could introduce Phase Two of character education: education in judgment. Judgment is based on weighing and considering reasons and evidence for and against propositions. Judgment is a virtue that relies upon practical wisdom; it is established as a habit through practice.

Judgment, or thoughtfulness, was the master virtue for Aristotle from whose exercise comes an appreciation for those other virtues: honesty, cooperation, toleration, and respect. Because young children have difficulty taking up multiple perspectives, as developmental psychologists tell us, thinking and deliberating that require the consideration of multiple perspectives would seem unsuitable for elementary-school children. Peters offers an important consideration in this regard:. But the difference is always one of degree.

Elementary-school students have yet to develop the skills and knowledge, or have yet to gain the experience, to participate in phase- two procedures that require perspectivism. In this two-phased civic education teachers inculcate specific virtues such as patriotism. But at a later stage this orientation toward solidifying a conventional perspective gives way to one of critical thinking. The first requires loyalty; the second, judgment. We teach the first through pledges, salutes, and oaths; we teach the second through critical inquiry. Have we introduced a significant problem when we teach students to judge values, standards, and beliefs critically? Students need to see and hear that disagreement does not necessarily entail disrespect.

Thoughtful, decent people can disagree. To teach students that those who disagree with us in a complicated situation like abortion or affirmative action are wrong or irresponsible or weak is to treat them unfairly. It also conveys the message that we think that we are infallible and have nothing to learn from what others have to say. Such positions undercut democracy. Would all parents approve of such a two-phased civic education? Yet the response to such parental concerns must be the same as that to any authority figure: Why do you think that you are always right? This, however, presupposes that parents, or authority figures, are themselves willing to exercise critical judgment on their own positions, values, and behaviors.

This point underscores the need to involve other social institutions and persons in character education. In the United States, most students are required to take courses on government or civics, and the main content is essentially political science for high school students. In other words, they use textbooks and other written materials to learn about the formal structure and behavior of political institutions, from local government to the United Nations Godsay et al. The philosophical justifications for this kind of curriculum are rarely developed fully, but probably an underlying idea is that citizens ought to play certain concrete roles--voting, monitoring the news, serving on juries, petitioning the government--and to do so effectively requires a baseline understanding of the political system.

Specific policies should result from a deliberative process to define the educational opportunities that all students must receive and to select appropriate outcomes for civic education — all overseen by a court concerned with assessing whether civic education is constitutionally "adequate. State standards are regulatory documents that affect the curriculum in public schools. All 50 states and the District of Columbia have adopted standards for civics as part of social studies Godsay et al, The logic of moving from question-generation to ultimately action suggests an implicit theory of civic engagement.

In the subsequent sections, we examine some proposals for alternative forms of civic education that are also philosophically interesting. Ideally, the students take their experience and observations from service into their academic work, and use their academic research and discussions to inform their service. Jerome Bruner, the renowned educator and psychologist, proposed that some classroom learning ought to be devoted to students creating political-action plans addressing significant social and political issues such as poverty or race.

He also urged educators to get their students out into the local communities to explore the occupations, ways of life, and habits of residence. Bruner is here following Dewey, who criticized traditional education for its failure to get teachers and students out into the community to become intimately familiar with the physical, historical, occupational, and economic conditions that could then be used as educational resources Dewey , Empirical evidence suggests that experiential education may be most effective for civic learning.

To bring them out of this private and passive understanding, nothing is better, as Tocqueville noted, than political participation. The kind of participation here is political action, not simply voting or giving money. Another influence on service-learning is the theory of social capital, described above. If a democracy depends on people serving one another and developing habits and networks of reciprocal concern--and if that kind of interaction is declining in a country like the United States--then it is natural to encourage or require students to serve as part of their learning. Some critics e. We can think of civic action as participation that involves far more than serving, voting, working or writing a letter to the editor.

It can take many other forms: attending and participating in political meetings; organizing and running meetings, rallies, protests, fund drives; gathering signatures for bills, ballots, initiatives, recalls; serving on local elected and appointed boards; starting or participating in political clubs; deliberating with fellow citizens about social and political issues central to their lives; and pursuing careers that have public value. Youth Organizing is a widespread practice that engages adolescents in civic or political activities.

That is a cognitively and ethically demanding activity that can be learned from experience. The most promising pedagogy is to discuss current events with a moderator--usually the teacher--and some requirement to prepare in advance. Debates are competitive discussions. Simulations such as mock trials or the Model UN involve discussing issues from the perspective of fictional or historical characters.

And deliberations usually involve students speaking in their own real voice and trying to find common ground. See, e. For instance, should a teacher disclose her or his own views or attempt to conceal them to be a neutral moderator? What questions should be presented as genuinely controversial? Most people would insist that slavery is no longer a controversy and should not be treated as such. But what about the reality of climate change? John Dewey argued that, from the 18 th century onward, states came to see education as the best means of perpetuating and recovering their political power. In other words, it is in democratic states that we want to look for the preparation of good persons as well as good citizens; that is, for democratic education, which in this context, to repeat for emphasis, is what is meant by civic education.

Creating a democratic culture within the schools not only facilitates preparing students for democratic participation in the political system, but it also fosters a democratic environment that shapes the relationships with adults and among peers that the students already engage in. Real problems, and not hypotheticals or academic exercises, are, Dewey argued, always of real concern to students. Book lessons and classroom discussions rarely connect with decision-making on issues that affect that community. The experiences that he wanted to promote were those that underscored healthy growth; those, in other words, that generated a greater desire to learn and to keep on learning and that built upon prior experiences.

One logical, and practical, possibility was to make the operations of the school part of the curriculum. Let the students use their in-school experiences to make, or help make, decisions that directly affect some of the day-to-day operations of the school—student discipline, maintenance of the grounds and buildings, problems with cliques, issues of sexism and racism, incidents of ostracism, and the like—as well as topics and issues inside the classrooms. It is not surprising that Dewey wanted to give students experience in making decisions that affect their lives in schools. What is surprising is that so little democracy takes place in schools and that those who spend the most time in schools have the least opportunity to experience it.

The significance of democratic decision-making within the schools and about the wider community—the making of actual decisions through democratic means—cannot be overstated. As a propaedeutic to democratic participation, political action of this sort is invaluable. Melissa S. Of course, not everything in school should be decided democratically. There are some areas in which decisions require expertise—a combination of experience and knowledge—that rules out students as decision-makers. Chief among such areas is pedagogy. Because the teachers and administrators know more about the processes of education and about their subjects, because they have firsthand and often intimate knowledge of the range and nature of abilities and problems of their students—a point emphasized by Dewey , 56 —as well as the particular circumstances in which the learning takes place, they and not the students should make pedagogical decisions.

At the same time, because many students are still children, the decisions that they are to make should be age-appropriate. Not all democratic procedures or school issues are suitable for all ages. Differences in cognitive, social, and emotional development, especially at the elementary-school level, complicate democratic action. While all students may have the same capacity as potentiality, activating those capacities requires development, as noted in the discussion of a two-phased form of civic education.

Deweyan ideas about the school as a community live on in several kinds of practice. First, in some experimental schools, students, teachers, and parents actually govern democratically. In a Sudbury School of which the first was founded in Sudbury, Massachusetts in , the whole community governs the institution through weekly town meetings. Much more common is to give students some degree of voice in the governance of a school through an elected student government, student-run media, and policies that encourage students to express their opinions. Another very prevalent approach is to support and encourage students to manage their own voluntary associations within a school: clubs, teams, etc.

This for Freire is unacceptable as civic education. Too often, observes Freire, students are asked to memorize and repeat ideas, stanzas, phrases, and formulas without understanding the meaning of or meaning behind them. Like Dewey, Freire thinks that knowledge comes only from invention and reinvention and the perpetual inquiry in the world that is a mark of all free human beings. Students thereby educate the teachers as well. That power is to be used to liberate themselves from oppression. Freire worked primarily with illiterate adult peasants in South America, but his work has applications as well to schools and school-aged children. It is to be a pedagogy for all, and Freire includes oppressors and the oppressed. To overcome oppression people must first critically recognize its causes.

Until the oppressed seek to remove this internalized oppressor, they cannot be free. They will continue to live in the duality of both oppressed and oppressor. It is no wonder, then, as Freire tells us, that peasants once promoted to overseers become more tyrannical toward their former workmates than the owners themselves Ibid, Having confronted the reality of the dual nature of her consciousness, having discovered her own internal oppressor and realized her actual situation, the person now must act on her realization.

She must act, in other words, in and on the world so as to lessen oppression. For Freire, to question was not enough; people must act as well. The circles consist of somewhere between 12 and 25 students and some teachers, all involved in dialogic exchange. The oppressed thereby use their own experiences and language to explain and surmount their oppression. They do not rely upon others, even teachers, to explain their oppressed circumstances.

The reciprocity of roles means that students teach teachers as teachers teach students. Dialogue encourages everyone to teach and everyone to create together. Because Freire worked with illiterate adult peasants, he insisted that the circles use the ways of speaking and the shared understandings of the peasants themselves. In the circles the learners identify their own problems and concerns and seek answers to them in the group dialogue.

Codifications may be photographs, drawings, poems, even a single word. As representations, codifications abstract the daily circumstances. For example, a photograph of workers in a sugar cane field permits workers to talk about the realities of their work and working conditions without identifying them as the actual workers in the photograph. The circles therefore have four basic elements: 1 problem posing, 2 critical dialogue, 3 solution posing, and 4 plan of action.

The goal, of course, is to overcome the problems, but it is also to raise the awareness, the critical consciousness conscientization , of the learners so as to end oppression in their individual and collective lives. The increased critical awareness enables learners to appropriate language without being colonized by it. True dialogue is for Freire what civic education must be about. If civic education does not include it, then there is little hope that the future will be anything for the oppressed but a continuation of the present. Essential to such education are the experiences of the students, whatever their ages or situations. Cosmopolitanism is an emerging and, because of globalization, an increasingly important topic for civic educators.

In an earlier iteration, cosmopolitan education was multicultural education. According to both, good persons need to be aware of the perspectives of others and the effects their decisions have on others. Should and must civic education incorporate a global awareness and foster a cosmopolitan sensibility? Martha Nussbaum, for one, thinks so. Nussbaum argues that our first obligation must be to all persons, regardless of race, creed, class, or border.

She does not mean that we ought to forsake our commitments to our family, friends, neighbors, and fellow citizens. Civic education should reflect that Ibid, Philosopher Eamonn Callan, however, thinks otherwise. Of course, the danger here is that a liberal patriot may well feel a sense of obligation or responsibility only when her country is committing the injustice. This thought is to be contrasted with our feelings and sense of responsibility when, as Callan suggests, Soviet tanks rolled through Prague. Because, according to Callan, our politico-moral identity was not implicated in the Soviet action, we somehow do not have to have a similar sense of horror and rage.

Perhaps we do not have to, but should we? What, therefore, should civic education look like? It appears that Nussbaum would favor the first, while Callan favors the second. Perhaps these two are not the only options. In her metaphor of concentric identity circles Nussbaum argues that we ought to try to bring the outer circles of our relationships, the circle of all humanity, closer to the center, to our selves and to our loved ones , 9. By doing so, we do not push out of our identities those particular relationships of significance to us. Instead, we need to take into consideration the effects that our moral and political decisions have on all of humanity. If our civic education helps us extend our sympathies, as Hume proposed, and if we could do so without paying the price of muting or eliminating our local and national affinities, then would Nussbaum and Callan agree on such a civic education?

Additionally, we need to consider that patriotism itself seems to have its own version of concentric circles. Is it ever too early to begin educating children about the cultures, customs, values, ideas, and beliefs of people from around the world? Will this undercut our commitment and even devotion to our own family, neighborhood, region, and nation? There ought to be a composite that will work here. If the purpose of civic education is to generate in the young those values that underscore successful participation in our liberal democracies, then the task facing educators, whether in elementary school, secondary school, or post-secondary school, might be far easier than we imagine. There seems to be a direct correlation between years in school and an increase in tolerance of difference Nie et al.

An increase of tolerance can lead to an increase of respect for those holding divergent views. Such increases could certainly help engender a cosmopolitan sensibility. But does the number of years in school correlate with a willingness to participate in the first place? For example, the number of Americans going to college has increased dramatically over the past 50 years, yet voting in elections and political participation in general are still woefully low. Perhaps public schools should not teach any virtue that is unrelated to the attainment of academic skills, which to some is the paramount, if not the sole, purpose of schooling.

If our democracies are important and robust, then do our citizens need such predispositions to see the value of participation? Will they need infusions of patriotism to do that? If tolerance and respect are democratic virtues, then do we fail our students when we do not tolerate or respect their desires as good persons to eschew civic participation even though this violates what we think of as the duties of good citizens? As stated earlier, civic education in a democracy must prepare citizens to participate in and thereby perpetuate the system; at the same time, it must prepare them to challenge what they see as inequities and injustices within that system. Yet a civic education that encourages students to challenge the nature and scope of our democracies runs the risk of turning off our students and turning them away from participation.

But if that civic education has offered more than simply critique, if its basis is critical thinking, which involves developing a tolerance of, if not an appreciation for, difference and divergence, as well as a willingness and even eagerness for political action, then galvanized citizens can make our systems more robust. Greater demands on our citizens, like higher expectations of our students, often lead to stronger performances.

Levine tufts. The philosophical questions have been less explored, but they are essential. For example: Who has the full rights and obligations of a citizen? The Good Citizen: Historical Conceptions 1. The Good Democrat 2. The Good Person 3. Modern Forms of Civic Education 4. This policy of supplying by opposite and rival interests, the defect of better motives, might be traced through the whole system of human affairs, private as well as public. We see it particularly displayed in all the subordinate distributions of power; where the constant aim is to divide and arrange the several offices in such a manner as that each may be a check on the other; that the private interest of every individual may be a centinel over the public rights.

These inventions of prudence cannot be less requisite in the distribution of the supreme powers of the state. Madison, Hamilton, and Jay, Federalist 51 1. The Good Democrat Civic education can occur in all kinds of regimes, but it is especially important in democracies. She wrote, At any time that individuals may gain from the costly action of others, without themselves contributing time and effort, they face collective action dilemmas for which there are coping methods. Some aspects of the science of association are both counterintuitive and counterintentional, and thus must be taught to each generation as part of the culture of a democratic citizenry. Ostrom Ostrom believed that these principles could be taught explicitly and formally, but the traditional and most effective means for teaching them were experiential.

The Good Person The qualities of the good citizen are not simply the skills necessary to participate in the political system. Peters offers an important consideration in this regard: The cardinal function of the teacher, in the early stages, is to get the pupil on the inside of the form of thought or awareness with which he is concerned. At a later stage, when the pupil has built into his mind both the concepts and the mode of exploration involved, the difference between teacher and taught is obviously only one of degree.

For both are participating in the shared experience of exploring a common world , Modern Forms of Civic Education In the United States, most students are required to take courses on government or civics, and the main content is essentially political science for high school students. Cosmopolitan Education Cosmopolitanism is an emerging and, because of globalization, an increasingly important topic for civic educators. Bibliography Works Cited Aristotle. The Politics , Stephen Everson ed. Battistoni, Richard M. Boyte, Harry C. Kari, Bruner, Jerome, Callan, Eamonn, Conover, P.

McDonnell, P. Timpane, and R. Benjamin eds. Delli Carpini, M. Damon, William, Viteritti eds. New Haven: Yale University Press, — Dewey, John, []. Dewey, John and Dewey, Evelyn, Schools of Tomorrow , New York: E. Dzur, Albert W. Pedagogy of the Oppressed , New York: Continuum. Galston, William, Gutmann, A. Hess, Diana, Kant, Immanuel, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. KawashimaGinsberg, Kei and Peter Levine, Levinson, Meira, Lickona, Thomas, Educating for Character , New York: Bantam. Quick, M. Their desire to date foreign men simply stems from the fact that otherwise, they will not find a partner.

If you talk to Russian women you will also find that most would actually prefer to live in Russia with a foreign husband if possible. That being said, you might be thinking, wow, it must be easy to find a great woman in Russia. And you are right. There is an abundance of Russian women who are of high quality and simply looking to start a family. Biological dating rules still exist in Russia. Just because you are an expat in Russia, does not make you immune to materialistic women. In fact, the opposite is true. You will be inundated with attention from attractive Russian women. This makes it incredibly hard to find a real connection and partner in Russia.

Russian women are incredibly pragmatic and they are always searching for the best deal they can get. All women are hard-wired to do this. In addition, the unwritten laws of dating are still true, you will not be able to get and keep a Russian woman who is significantly more attractive than you. It is easy to be lured into the Russian mail order bride scams, but the reality in Russia is not nearly as desperate as these sites claim. In fact, the best way to meet Russian women is to simply move to Russia.

Check out our guides to legal residency in Russia and finding a job in Russia as an expat. Therefore, if you are looking for a high-quality Russian woman for a long-term relationship or marriage, you would be much better off to be more realistic and target women who are still attractive but overlooked by most men. These women tend to be much more cultured in general than other Russian women and are usually looking for a man to start a family with.

If you talk to him in his own language, that goes to his heart. This is a powerful quote about language learning and understanding. Unfortunately, only those people who speak two or more languages will really understand what this means. Despite the fact that many Russian women speak English very well, it is important to understand that they still grew up in a culture, which is vastly different from Western Europe or the United States. It is very common for expats in Russia to speak English with Russian women and this inherently results in cultural misunderstandings. It seems quite simple, but even the way Russians and Western people understand the words yes and no can be vastly different. In Western cultures, especially American, yes simply means maybe.

At Expatriant, we firmly believe that knowledge of the local language is extremely important to success as an expat generally, and Russia is no exception. Read about the importance of learning the local language. The family unit is much more important to people in Russia and Russian women are no exception. You will quickly find that Russian women value what their parents think, and are usually eager to introduce their partner to their parents. This can be overwhelming to many expats living in Russia.

In American culture, for example, meeting the family of your partner usually is one of the last steps of a relationship before marriage. This is definitely not the case in Russia. Not only do Russian women typically seek approval from their parents regarding their choice of partner, but they also will want you to spend time with their parents. This is important to understand because while you might sleep with the woman, you marry her family. Russian women value their family, so it is incredibly important that you understand that her family will now be yours. The best way to learn about Russian culture is simply to spend time with her family.

Most Russian families have a dacha or country house where they love to spend time in the summer months. Almost every expat or foreigner falls in love with Russian family culture, but it can take some adjustment. In addition to Russian women caring for their own family, they have even more excitement for creating their own. Russian women are known for being great mothers and homemakers. What is more impressive is that almost all women in Russia work. It is an extreme luxury to be able to be a stay at home mother in Russia. Russian men, on the other hand, are known for helping very little with chores and tasks around the home. Western men are generally much more helpful at home and with children, making relationships with Russian women more equal. Russian women typically expect less from men and Western men typically expect less from women.

There are definitely advantages when expectations are lower for both parties to a relationship. Probably the most troublesome cultural difference for foreign men in Russia is that Russian culture puts incredible pressure on women to get married and have children by 25 years old. This is certainly changing, but the older generation in Russia still sees family as the most important part of life.

Therefore, it is important to understand that while your girlfriend might be happy to date for a prolonged period of time, her parents and grandparents will be asking her about marriage and children constantly. To a point, this is understandable, older marriages and fewer children will severely impact the existing demographic crisis in Russia. You will struggle with most Russian women to maintain a serious longterm relationship without getting married and discussing children.

Unfortunately, this is changing and Russian women are getting married later every year. The number of marriages is also quickly declining. In Russia, many people will be surprised that gender roles are much more strict within society than in Western Europe or the United States. In Russia, it is very rare that men are involved with housework or raising children. This may come as a surprise, but Russian women are incredibly grateful for help in this regard. Imagine someone being thankful for the help you expected to give. For many Western women, coming to Russia can be eye-opening in terms of expectations of women. There are a number of professions that Russian women cannot hold.

It is important though to note that all of the jobs are quite dangerous. Think mining and manufacturing of dangerous chemical substances. Despite the stricter gender roles in Russian society, women do actually yield many powerful positions in society, government, and business. The top expat news source in Russia, the Moscow Times, wrote a great article on who is to blame for gender stereotypes in Russia.

One thing that usually surprises expats and foreign men in Russia is that men literally always pay on dates. At first, this may aggravate many men from Western countries who are used to splitting bills on dates or alternating. You need to simply forget your notions of dating customs and embrace the fact that you are in a different culture. You need to use common sense. Of course, there are Russian women who will try to take advantage of the fact that you are a foreigner in Russia. Always use good judgment, but be prepared for things to be different than in your home culture with regard to dating. This goes back to gender roles in Russia and how they differ from the West. If you look back at Western dating culture 50 or 60 years ago, you will likely see the same types of behavior.

It is much more conservative in Russia and you just have to be ready for cultural differences. Without a doubt, the thing that stands out the most to foreign men in Russia is the way Russian women dress. Even a short trip to the grocery store requires makeup and high heels. While Russian women are generally very attractive, they almost always take the time to make sure they look their best. This probably is a result of at least two of the cultural differences mentioned here, stricter gender roles and fewer men.

Russian women are at such a statistical disadvantage that it forces them to put significantly more effort into their appearance. You need to understand that no matter what you say, she will likely continue to do this even when she is in a relationship.

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