➊ Baseball Team Research Paper

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Baseball Team Research Paper



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Is Softball Harder Than Baseball?

Merrill Kelly was activated off of the IL to take his spot. He has not yet been placed on the IL, which is a good sign. Gavin Lux has been filling in playing left field with both him and AJ Pollock being out for the Dodgers. He has been cleared to play catch however with his type of injury, it is not likely he could return this year. Chris Stratton has been closing for the Pirates since the injury. It was initially thought that he would miss limited time but he continues to feel soreness.

Vince Velasquez was signed a minor-league deal and is expected to fill Snell's spot in the rotation. Severity is not known. Brantley will begin baseball activities Sunday. The earliest he could return is this Wednesday based on when he was placed on the IL. Winker had been activated a day earlier from the IL for the same injury. The aggravation of this injury could mean the end of the season for him. This injury seems to have been bothering him for the last few days as he did not pitch for about a week. Manager Gabe Kapler is hoping to have him back by the end of the regular season. The earliest he could return is September Until then, Tyler Rogers should close for the Giants. At most, he would be able to give you two to three innings down the stretch at this point.

Manager Joe Maddon admitted this week that it's unlikely Trout is able to return from the IL this year. Cueto has begun to play catch but has not yet resumed any mound work. It does not look like he will return during the regular season. Bassitt has completed bullpen sessions and it is possible he may return, albeit for abbreviated starts, prior to the end of the year. Bundy threw a bullpen session this week and expects to return this season.

His bullpen session was only fastballs and even if Bundy does come back, there is not much time for him to build up enough for prolonged starts when he comes back. Garver is scheduled to begin a rehab assignment over the weekend and could return some time next week. Taillon felt good after a bullpen session this week. Taillon is eligible to return as early as this weekend but he may require additional time to build up before he's activated. He is not likely to return this year. Joe Panik and Lewin Diaz will fill in at first base for the Marlins.

He has participated in hitting drills and the Rockies are still optimistic that he'll have enough time to return prior to the end of the year. Manager Dave Roberts said this past week that Pollock is expected to play in sim games this weekend before reporting to the Dodgers' spring training facility to play in rehab games. He could be activated by the end of next week.

He is currently on a rehab assignment and could return at any time. He began a rehab assignment this week and could be activated soon. Win Big With RotoBaller Be sure to also check out all of our other daily fantasy baseball articles and analysis to help you set those winning lineups, including this new RotoBaller video:. Unfortunately, the injury bug has come back to bite some big-name running backs. If you managed to add Alexander Mattison a couple weeks ago or Damien Williams last week and roll with them in your lineup, you were a happy GM in Week 5. Read More. Week 5 brought some key injuries and wild shootouts, which means we've got plenty of waiver fallout to sort through.

Catch your breath, assess your team's needs, and break out the budget tracker. It's time for the waiver wire lightning round heading into Week 6. This column is published early every week and then updated on After five weeks of the regular season, some of you have been able to embrace the numbers that have been assembled by the running backs that are contained on your rosters. Unfortunately, an increasing number of fantasy managers have encountered injuries, while others have contended with disappointing output due to a collection of unexpected developments.

Another week of NFL action is behind us. The waiver wire hasn't been kind to us this season — will that change this week? Below, you'll find some wideouts that you should be targeting on the waiver wire ahead of Week 6. Not all options are the same. Some players may be better in PPR Any person fond of witnessing this game may avail himself of seeing it played with consummate skill and wonderful dexterity.

Two years later the following notice appeared in the July 13, edition of the Delhi New York Gazette : "The undersigned, all residents of the new town of Hamden, with the exception of Asa Howland, who has recently removed into Delhi, challenge an equal number of persons of any town in the County of Delaware, to meet them at any time at the house of Edward B. Chace, in said town, to play the game of Bass-Ball, for the sum of one dollar each per game. Thurlow Weed in his memoir recalled organized club baseball in Rochester, New York in Though an industrious and busy place, its citizens found leisure for rational and healthy recreation. A base-ball club, numbering nearly fifty members, met every afternoon during the ball-playing season.

Though the members of the club embraced persons between eighteen and forty, it attracted the young and the old. However, there is no consensus as to the rules that were used or whether it can be considered the first "baseball" game. Adam E. Ford, who had witnessed the game as a six-year-old boy, in an issue of The Sporting Life magazine in Denver, Colorado; he described the game in remarkable detail, including the precise distances between the irregular bases and how the ball was constructed.

However, some historians, such as David Block, have expressed doubts as to the veracity and rather incredible specificity of Ford's memory, and indeed compared it to Abner Graves' very similar yarn about Abner Doubleday. In that letter, Ford refers to 'old grayhairs' at the time, who had played this game as children, suggesting that the origins of baseball in Canada go back into the 18th century. Very similar instances were recorded by John Montgomery Ward in his book Base-Ball: How to Become a Player, with the Origins, History and Explanation of the Game , in which he recounts several elderly men recalling having played as boys, covering a span from the s to the s; among others, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Sr.

That baseball is based on older English games such as stool-ball, trap-ball and tip-cat with possible influences from cricket is difficult to dispute. On the other hand, baseball as played in the New World has many elements that are uniquely American. The earliest published author to muse on the origin of baseball, John Montgomery Ward , was suspicious of the often-parroted claim that rounders is the direct ancestor of baseball, as both were formalized in the same time period.

He concluded, with some amount of patriotism, that baseball evolved separately from town-ball i. Games played with bat-and-ball together may all be distant cousins; the same goes for base-and-ball games. Bat, base, and ball games for two teams that alternate in and out, such as baseball, cricket, and rounders, are likely to be close cousins. They all involve throwing a ball to a batsman who attempts to "bat" it away and run safely to a base, while the opponent tries to put the batter-runner out when liable "liable [to be put out]" is the baseball term for unsafe.

Certainly, baseball is related to cricket and rounders, but exactly how, or how closely, has not been established. The only certain thing is that cricket is much older than baseball, and that cricket was very popular in colonial America and the early United States, fading only with the explosive popularity of New York baseball after the Civil War. Baseball owes to cricket some adopted terminology, such as "outs", "innings", "runs" and "umpires".

There was also, " wicket ", a countrified form of cricket once very popular in New England, which retained the old-fashioned wide, low two-stump wicket , and in which the large ball was rolled along the ground. The likelihood is that "base ball" and "rounders" along with "feeder," "squares" and other names were regional appellations for the same boys' game played with varying rules in many parts of England from the early s onward. The game of "cat" or " cat-ball " had many variations but usually there was a pitcher, a catcher, a batter and fielders, but there were no sides and often no bases to run.

Often, as in English tip-cat, there was no pitcher and the "cat" was not a ball but an oblong wooden object, roughly football-shaped, which could be flipped into the air by striking one end, or simply a short stick which could be placed over a hole or stone and similarly flipped up. In other variants the batter himself tossed the ball into the air with his free hand, as in fungo. A feature of some versions of cat that would later become a feature of baseball was that a batter would be out if he swung and missed three times.

Another game that was popular in early America was "one ol' cat", the name of which was possibly originally a contraction of one hole catapult. One ol' cat was often played when there weren't enough players to choose up sides and play townball. Sometimes running to a base and back was involved. There are numerous 18th and early 19th-century references in England and especially America to "bat and ball". Unfortunately,there is no knowledge and information about the game besides the name, nor whether it was an alternate term for baseball or something else such as trap-ball, cat or even cricket.

It might merely be a generic phrase for any game played with bat and ball. However, in , Alfred Elwyn recalled of his childhood in New Hampshire in the s:. One of his adversaries stood at a given distance in front of him to throw the ball, and another behind him to throw back the ball if it were not struck, or to catch it. If the ball was caught by any of the opposite party who were in the field, or if not caught, was thrown at and hit the boy who was trying to get back to his starting place, their party was in; and the boy who caught the ball, or hit his opponent, took the bat. A good deal of fun and excitement consisted in the ball not having been struck to a sufficient distance to admit of the striker running round before the ball was in the hands of his adversaries.

If his successor struck it, he must run, and take his chance, evading the ball as well as he could by falling down or dodging it. While at the goals he could not be touched; only in the intervals between them. Baseball, as it was before the rise to dominance of its altered New York variant in the s and 60s, was known variously as base ball, town ball, round ball, [c] round town, goal ball, field-base, three-corner cat, the New England game, or Massachusetts baseball. Generally speaking, "round-ball" was the most usual name in New England, "base-ball" in New York, and "town-ball" in Pennsylvania and the South. The note accompanying this diagram says, "Thirty or more players 15 or more on each side with a bat and ball playing Town Ball, some times called Round Ball, and subsequently the so-called Massachusetts game of Base Ball".

Early baseball or town-ball had many, many variants, as would be expected of an informal boys' game, and most differed in several particulars from the game which developed in New York in the s. As mentioned above, in The Boy's Own Book was reprinted in Boston, including the rules of rounders, and Robin Carver's The Book of Sports copied the same rules almost verbatim but changed "Rounders" to "Base or Goal ball" because, as the preface states, those "are the names generally adopted in this country" — which also implies that the game was "generally" known and played.

Of more interest is the fact that here appears the earliest use of the terms "innings" and "diamond". The early s saw the formation of at least three more clubs in Manhattan, the New York, [h] the Eagle and the Magnolia; another in Philadelphia, the Athletic; and even a club in Cincinnati. By the game of baseball was well-established enough that a newspaper report of a game played by a group of teamsters on Christmas Day referred to the game as "a good old-fashioned game of base ball", [38] and the report of the National Association of Base Ball Players declared that "The game of base-ball has long been a favorite and popular recreation in this country, but it is only within the last fifteen years that any attempt has been made to systematize and regulate the game.

The older game was recognized as being very different in character from the new "Knickerbocker" style. The New York Clipper of October 10, , reported on a match between the Liberty Club of New Jersey and "a party of Old Fogies who were in the habit of playing the old fashioned base ball, which as nearly everyone knows, is entirely different from the base ball as now played.

Round-ball persisted in New England longer than in other regions and during the period of overlap was sometimes distinguished as the "New England game" or "Massachusetts baseball"; in a set of rules was drawn up by the Massachusetts Association of Base Ball Players at the Phoenix Hotel in Dedham. This game was played by teams of ten to fourteen players with four bases 60 feet apart and no foul territory. The ball was considerably smaller and lighter than a modern baseball, and runners were still put out by "soaking". The myth that Abner Doubleday invented baseball in was once widely promoted and widely believed. There is no evidence for this claim except for the testimony of one unreliable man decades later, and there is persuasive counter-evidence. Doubleday himself never made such a claim; he left many letters and papers, but they contain no description of baseball or any suggestion that he considered himself prominent in the game's history.

The story was attacked by baseball writers almost as soon as it came out, but it had the weight of Major League Baseball and the Spalding publishing empire behind it. Contrary to popular belief, Doubleday was never inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame , although a large oil portrait of him was on display at the Hall of Fame building for many years. Doubleday's invention of baseball was the finding of a panel appointed by Albert Spalding , a former star pitcher and club executive, who had become the leading American sporting goods entrepreneur and sports publisher.

The members were baseball figures, not historians: Spalding's friend Abraham G. The final report, published on December 30, , included three sections: a summary of the panel's findings written by Mills, a letter by John Montgomery Ward supporting the panel, and a dissenting opinion by Henry Chadwick. The research methods were, at best, dubious. Mills was a close friend of Doubleday, and upon Doubleday's death in Mills orchestrated his memorial service and burial.

Wright and Reach were effectively Spalding's employees, as he had secretly bought out their sporting-goods businesses some years before. Several other members had personal reasons to declare baseball as an "American" game, such as Spalding's strong American imperialist views. The Mills Commission concluded that Doubleday had invented baseball in Cooperstown, New York in ; that Doubleday had invented the word "baseball", designed the diamond, indicated fielders' positions, and written the rules. No written records in the decade between and have ever been found to corroborate these claims, nor could Doubleday be interviewed he died in The principal source for the story was one letter from elderly Abner Graves , who was a five-year-old resident of Cooperstown in Graves never mentioned a diamond, positions or the writing of rules.

What's more, his reliability as a witness was challenged because he spent his final days in an asylum for the criminally insane. Doubleday was not in Cooperstown in and may never have visited the town. Mills, a lifelong friend of Doubleday, never heard him mention baseball, nor is there any mention of the game in Doubleday's autobiography. In character, Doubleday was bookish and sedentary, with no observable interest in athletics of any sort. Versions of baseball rules and descriptions of similar games have been found in publications that significantly predate his alleged invention in Despite this, the ballpark built in only a few blocks down from the Hall of Fame still bears the name "Doubleday Field".

However, aside from the artificial intrusion of the person of Doubleday and the village of Cooperstown, the Mills report was not entirely incorrect in its broad outline: a game related to English rounders was played in America from early times; it was supplanted by a variant form which originated in New York circa But this development happened in urban New York City, not pastoral Cooperstown, and the men involved were neither farm boys nor West Point cadets. The earliest known published [a] rules of baseball in the United States were written in for a New York City "base ball" club called the Knickerbockers.

Wheaton and Secretary William H. One important rule, the 13th, outlawed "soaking" or "plugging", putting a runner out by hitting him with a thrown ball, introducing instead the concept of the tag; this reflected the use of a farther-traveling and potentially injurious hard ball. The Knickerbockers also enlarged the diamond well beyond that of town ball, possibly to modern size depending on how "paces" is interpreted. Evolution from the so-called " Knickerbocker Rules " to the current rules is fairly well documented. The most significant differences were that overhand pitching was illegal, strikes were only counted if the batter swung and missed, "wides" or balls were not counted at all, a batted ball caught on the first bounce was an out, and a game was played to 21 "aces" or runs rather than for a set number of innings.

It is noteworthy, however, that the Knickerbocker Rules did not cover a number of basic elements of the game. For example, there was no mention of positions or the number of players on a side, the pitching distance was unspecified, the direction of base-running was left open, and it was never stated, though implied, that an "ace" was scored by crossing home plate. In all likelihood, all of these matters except the first were considered so intrinsic to baseball by this time that they were assumed; the number of players on a side, however, remained a matter of debate among clubs [d] until fixed at nine in , the Knickerbockers arguing unsuccessfully for seven-man teams. On June 3, , Congress officially credited Cartwright with inventing the modern game of baseball.

He was already a member of the Baseball Hall of Fame, having been inducted in for various other contributions to baseball. However, the role of Cartwright himself in the game's invention has been disputed. According to Major League Baseball 's official historian, John Thorn, "Cartwright's plaque in the Baseball Hall of Fame declares he set the bases 90 feet apart and established nine innings as a game and nine players as a team. He did none of these things, and every other word of substance on his plaque is false. Wheaton and William H. There is evidence that these rules had been experimented with and used by New York ball clubs for some time; Cartwright, in his capacity as club secretary and a bookseller , was merely the first to have them printed up.

Further evidence of a more collective model of New York baseball's development, and doubts as to Cartwright's role as "inventor", came with the discovery of a newspaper interview with William R. Wheaton , a founding member of the Gotham Baseball Club in and first vice president of the Knickerbocker Club, and co-author of its rules, eight years later. Three-cornered cat [ie. We had to have a good outdoor game, and as the games then in vogue didn't suit us we decided to remodel three-cornered cat and make a new game. We first organized what we called the Gotham Baseball Club. This was the first ball organization in the United States, [e] and it was completed in The first step we took in making baseball was to abolish the rule of throwing the ball at the runner and ordered instead that it should be thrown to the baseman instead, who had to touch the runner before he reached the base.

During the regime of three-cornered cat there were no regular bases, but only such permanent objects as a bedded boulder or and old stump, and often the diamond looked strangely like an irregular polygon. We laid out the ground at Madison Square in the form of an accurate diamond, with home-plate and sand bags for bases…. It was found necessary to reduce the new rules to writing. This work fell to my hands, and the code I then formulated is substantially that in use today.

We abandoned the old rule of putting out on the first bound and confined it to fly catching. The new game quickly became very popular with New Yorkers, and the numbers of the club soon swelled beyond the fastidious notions of some of us, and we decided to withdraw and found a new organization, which we called the Knickerbocker. If Wheaton's account, given in , was correct, then most of the innovations credited to Cartwright were, in fact, the work of the Gothams before the Knickerbockers were formed, including a set of written rules. Once payment has been made in full, your order will be assigned to the most qualified writer who majors in your subject.

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