✎✎✎ Emotional Processing Theory

Friday, October 15, 2021 5:29:49 AM

Emotional Processing Theory



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Dual Process Theory How should we use our 2 systems of thought: gut-feeling, and rational thought? What is dual process theory of reasoning? Share on Facebook. Share on Twitter. Get one concept every week in your inbox. Email Address. All semantic processing is carried out after the filter has selected the message to pay attention to. So whichever message s restricted by the bottleneck i. Broadbent wanted to see how people were able to focus their attention selectively attend , and to do this he deliberately overloaded them with stimuli. One of the ways Broadbent achieved this was by simultaneously sending one message to a person's right ear and a different message to their left ear.

This is called a split span experiment also known as the dichotic listening task. The dichotic listening tasks involves simultaneously sending one message a 3-digit number to a person's right ear and a different message a different 3-digit number to their left ear. Participants were asked to listen to both messages at the same time and repeat what they heard. This is known as a 'dichotic listening task'. Broadbent was interested in how these would be repeated back. Would the participant repeat the digits back in the order that they were heard order of presentation , or repeat back what was heard in one ear followed by the other ear ear-by-ear.

He actually found that people made fewer mistakes repeating back ear by ear and would usually repeat back this way. Broadbent's theory predicts that hearing your name when you are not paying attention should be impossible because unattended messages are filtered out before you process the meaning - thus the model cannot account for the 'Cocktail Party Phenomenon'. Other researchers have demonstrated the ' cocktail party effect ' Cherry, under experimental conditions and have discovered occasions when information heard in the unattended ear 'broke through' to interfere with information participants are paying attention to in the other ear.

Treisman agrees with Broadbent's theory of an early bottleneck filter. However, the difference is that Treisman's filter attenuates rather than eliminates the unattended material. In her experiments, Treisman demonstrated that participants were still able to identify the contents of an unattended message, indicating that they were able to process the meaning of both the attended and unattended messages. Treisman carried out dichotic listening tasks using the speech shadowing method. Typically, in this method participants are asked to simultaneously repeat aloud speech played into one ear called the attended ear whilst another message is spoken to the other ear.

For example, participants asked to shadow "I saw the girl furniture over" and ignore "me that bird green jumping fee", reported hearing "I saw the girl jumping over". Clearly, then, the unattended message was being processed for meaning and Broadbent's Filter Model, where the filter extracted on the basis of physical characteristics only, could not explain these findings. Because people perceive their time dwindling as they age, adult age differences are the easiest way to see socioemotional selectivity theory at work. For example, if a young adult becomes terminally ill, their goals will shift as their time is truncated. Similarly, if one knows a specific set of circumstances is coming to an end, their goals may shift as well.

For instance, if one is planning to move out of state, as the time of their departure draws closer, they will be more likely to spend time cultivating the relationships that matter most to them while worrying less about expanding their network of acquaintances in the town they will be leaving. Thus, socioemotional selectivity theory demonstrates that the human ability to perceive time impacts motivation. Whereas the pursuit of long-term rewards makes sense when one perceives their time as expansive, when time is perceived as limited, emotionally fulfilling and meaningful goals take on new relevance. Research on socioemotional selectivity theory also revealed that older adults have a bias towards positive stimuli, a phenomenon called the positivity effect.

The positivity effect suggests that, in contrast to young adults, older adults tend to pay more attention to and remember positive information over negative information. Studies have shown that the positivity effect is the result of both enhanced processing of positive information and diminished processing of negative information as we age.

Moreover, research suggests that while both older and younger adults pay more attention to negative information, older adults do this significantly less. Some scholars have proposed that the positivity effect is the result of cognitive decline because positive stimuli is less cognitively demanding than negative stimuli. However, research has demonstrated that older adults with higher levels of cognitive control tend to exhibit the strongest preference for positive stimuli. Thus, the positivity effect appears to be the result of older adults using their cognitive resources to selectively process information that will meet their goal to experience more positive and less negative emotion.

There is a great deal of research support for socioemotional selectivity theory and the positivity effect. They also found that older adults were more likely to appreciate positive emotional experiences and let go of negative emotional experiences.

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