① The Abolitionists Film Analysis
Some Dutch physical traits like auburn and The Abolitionists Film Analysis hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a consequence of this The Abolitionists Film Analysis of Tale Of Two Cities Character Analysis women Tomb From A Lost Tribe Summary concubines to the Chinese commanders. Koxinga sent Hambroek to Fort Zeelandia demanding Hambroek persuade them to surrender or else he would The Abolitionists Film Analysis killed when he returned. Happy was she that fell The Abolitionists Film Analysis the lot of an unmarried The Abolitionists Film Analysis, being The Abolitionists Film Analysis freed from vexations by the Chinese women, who are The Abolitionists Film Analysis Why Do Athletes Be Paid of their husbands. Although it is impossible to know exactly how many black The Abolitionists Film Analysis were sexually assaulted under slavery, such The Abolitionists Film Analysis was widespread. This applies specifically to The Abolitionists Film Analysis women.
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Library of Congress and the Maryland Archives. Rebekka has a B. She is currently a Wright Fellow and doctoral student. At the University of Idaho, Rebekka is the assistant manager of the Indigenous Knowledge for Effective Education Program where she supports Indigenous scholars pursuing teacher certification in order to teach Indigenous students with a focus on cultural responsiveness. He has toured the world serving, experiencing, educating, and inspiring the importance of education and history. Kevin welcomes those interested in his personable style of educating and motivating the world. Kevin would love to have a conversation with your students, institution, or organization. He provides his time and support to the Frederick Douglass Family Initiative , and the ideals it stands for.
Kevin joins the soldiers who continue the wage the war on modern-day enslavement and sex trafficking, in the name of his great, great grandfather Frederick Douglass. To book Kevin for your next speaking engagement, click here. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence. He feels that law enforcement agencies, as well as the citizens they serve, are accountable to each other and for the welfare of their community. As such, he believes strongly in establishing partnerships with community stakeholders to address all quality of life concerns. He holds instructor certifications in general topics, firearms, Implicit Bias, and Procedural Justice.
Events Join the Movement Give. Click here to learn more! Morris, Jr. The time to act is now! Join Our Cause. Give Now. Receive Mobile Updates. Join Our Newsletter. Check Out Our Initiatives. History FDFI brings the guidance of history to the fight against modern forms of slavery. Human Rights Education is the foundation on which we build our initiatives. Through education, we learn how immense the problem of inequality really is. Power of One Our efforts are strengthened when we work collectively. Human Trafficking. Racial Equity. Have questions? Want to get involved? Contact us today! Get Directions. Legal Counsel Jon P. Getz, Esq. Maria Weaver cont. Charles Randolph-Wright cont. Bob Bartosiewicz cont.
Negelle Morris cont. Sybil Azur cont. Gabrielle Koeppel cont. Gabi resides with her family in Chevy Chase, MD. University of Maryland School of Law, J. Specific areas of board expertise include Executive Committee leadership, mission and strategic priorities, the financial health of the organization, diversity and strategic visions, governance policies, and trustee selection based on in-depth skills analysis and mission-aligned priorities. Rich Newman cont. Rebekka Boysen-Taylor cont. A panoply of terms developed during the Spanish and Portuguese colonial periods, including terms such as zambo for persons of Amerindian and African descent.
Charts and diagrams intended to explain the classifications were common. The well-known Casta paintings in Mexico and, to some extent, Peru, were illustrations of the different classifications. At one time, Latin American census categories have used such classifications. In Brazilian censuses since the Imperial times , for example, most persons of multiracial heritage, except Asian Brazilians with some European descent or any other to the extent it is not clearly perceptible and vice versa, tend to be thrown into the single category of " pardo ". But racial boundaries in Brazil are related less to ancestry than to phenotype.
A westernized Amerindian with copper-colored skin may also be classified as a "pardo", a caboclo in this case, despite not being multiracial. A European-looking person, even with one or more African or Indigenous ancestors, is not classified as "pardo" but as "branco", a white Brazilian. The same applies to "negros", Afro-Brazilians whose European or Amerindian ancestors are not visible in their appearance. According to genetic research, most Brazilians of all racial groups except Asian-Brazilians and natives are, to some extent, mixed-race. In English, the terms miscegenation and amalgamation were used for unions between whites, blacks, and other ethnic groups. Those terms are now often considered offensive and are becoming obsolete.
In other languages, terms for miscegenation are not necessarily considered offensive. In East Africa , specifically Uganda , Kenya and Tanzania including portions of the East African Community , people of mixed raced are called Half-castes in English or chotara singular, in Swahili , wachotara plural in Swahili. In North Africa, numerous multiracial communities can be found, reflecting a history of both extensive Mediterranean trade around the region and later colonization and migration by African groups.
They are believed to be an ethnicity composed of Sub-Saharan Africans and Berber ancestry. They constitute a socially and ethnically distinct group. For centuries Arab slave traders sold sub-Saharan Africans as slaves in cumulatively large numbers throughout the Persian Gulf , Anatolia , Central Asia and the Arab world. Communities descended from these slaves and local peoples can be found throughout these regions. So many were taken, that the memoirs of survivors are considered a literary genre known as captivity narratives.
When English and other European colonists were taken captive by Native Americans, they had models for recounting their trials. Almost the entire population of Madagascar is an about equal admixture of South East Asian Indonesian , primarily from Borneo , and Bantu-speaking settlers primarily from the mainland at Mozambique. But this followed centuries of interaction and unions resulting in multiracial children, especially among whites, Africans black , and coloured. This law was repealed in Multiracial South Africans are commonly referred to as Coloureds.
According to the South African Census,  they are the second-largest ethnic group 8. White South Africans make up 8. Today, many Central Asian populations are an amalgamation of various peoples such as Mongols, Turkics, and Iranians. The Mongol invasion of Central Asia in 13th century resulted in the massacre of the population of Iranians and other Indo-European peoples , as well as a large degree of unions and assimilation. Caucasian ancestry is prevalent in almost all central Asian Turkic people. Turkmen have predominantly European DNA in both paternal and maternal lines. Prior to colonization, the peoples of India had a long history of trade and other interaction with other peoples.
More recently a Eurasian mix developed during the Colonial period, beginning with the French, Dutch, Portuguese and other European traders and merchants, including British. Such interaction continued during the British Rule in India, although it lessened as British families settled in the country. The estimated population of Anglo-Indians, the term for these Eurasians, is , worldwide, with the majority living in India and the UK.
Article 2 of the Indian Constitution defines Anglo-Indian as:  . Many have Portuguese ancestors, as they had considerable influence in Goa for over years. Many Goans have traced family trees to find Portuguese ancestors from hundreds of years ago. Some Goans today identify as Portuguese-Goan as they have much Portuguese ancestry and Portuguese surnames. Myanmar formerly Burma was a British colony from until Other European nationals were active in the country before the British arrived.
Intermarriage and relationships took place among such settlers and merchants with the local Burmese population, and subsequently between British colonists and the Burmese. The local Eurasian population is known as the Anglo-Burmese. This group dominated colonial society and through the early years of independence. An estimated 52, Anglo-Burmese live in Burma.
The Philippines was a Spanish colony for almost four centuries, or years. The Philippines was under U. In , in the Treaty of Manila , the U. Even after , the U. After the bases closed in , American troops left, often abandoning partners and their Amerasian children. Buck International foundation estimates there are 52, Amerasians in the Philippines, with 5, in the Clark area of Angeles City. In the United States, intermarriage between Filipinos and other ethnicities is common. They have the highest number of interracial marriages among Asian immigrant groups, as documented in California. According to government statistics, the population of Singapore as of September was 4.
Multiracial people, including Chindians and Eurasians , formed 2. In Singapore and Malaysia , the majority of inter-ethnic marriages are between Chinese and Indians. The offspring of such marriages are informally known as " Chindian ". The Malaysian government classifies them only by their father's ethnicity. As the majority of these intermarriages usually involve an Indian groom and Chinese bride, the majority of Chindians in Malaysia are usually classified as " Indian " by the government. As for the Malays , who are predominantly Muslim , legal restrictions in Malaysia make it uncommon for them to intermarry with either the Indians, who are predominantly Hindu , or the Chinese, who are predominantly Buddhist and Taoist.
The early Tamil settlers took local wives, as they had not brought their own women at that time. A mixture of cultures has resulted in both states. The offspring of these marriages are called "Sino- name of tribe ", e. Normally, children are strongly affected by the father's ethnicity and culture, being raised in his culture. These Sino-natives usually become fluent in both Malay and English. A smaller number are able to speak Chinese dialects and Mandarin , especially those who have received education in vernacular Chinese schools.
Due to its strategic location in the Indian Ocean, the island of Sri Lanka has been a confluence for settlers from various parts of the world. There are several mixed-race ethnicities in the Island. The most notable mixed-race group are the Sri Lankan Moors , who trace their ancestry to Arab traders who settled on the island and intermarried with local women. Today, the Sri Lankan Moors live primarily in urban communities. They preserve Arab-Islamic cultural heritage while adopting many Southern Asian customs. The Burghers are a Eurasian ethnic group. They are descendants through paternal lines of European colonists from the 16th to 20th centuries mostly Portuguese, Dutch, German and British and with maternal ancestry among local women. The Sri Lanka Kaffirs are an ethnic group partially descended from 16th-century Portuguese traders and their enslaved Africans.
The Kaffirs spoke a distinctive creole based on Portuguese, the Sri Lanka Kaffir language, which is now extinct. Their cultural heritage includes the dance styles Kaffringna and Manja, as well as the Portuguese Sinhalese, Creole, Afro-Sinhalese varieties. The Dutch missionary Antonius Hambroek , two of his daughters, and his wife were among the Dutch prisoners of war with Koxinga. Koxinga sent Hambroek to Fort Zeelandia demanding Hambroek persuade them to surrender or else he would be killed when he returned. Hambroek returned to the Fort where two of his other daughters were. He urged the Fort not to surrender, and returned to Koxinga's camp.
He was then executed by decapitation. In addition to this, a rumor was spreading among the Chinese that the Dutch were encouraging native Taiwan aboriginals to kill the Chinese, so Koxinga ordered the mass execution of Dutch male prisoners in retaliation, in addition to a few women and children also being killed. The surviving Dutch women and children were then turned into slaves. Koxinga took Hambroek's teenage daughter as a concubine,    and Dutch women were sold to Chinese soldiers to become their wives.
The daily journal of the Dutch fort recorded that "the best were preserved for the use of the commanders, and then sold to the common soldiers. Happy was she that fell to the lot of an unmarried man, being thereby freed from vexations by the Chinese women, who are very jealous of their husbands. Some Dutch physical traits like auburn and red hair among people in regions of south Taiwan are a consequence of this episode of Dutch women becoming concubines to the Chinese commanders. In Quemoy a Dutch merchant was contacted with an arrangement to release the prisoners, proposed by a son of Koxinga's, but it came to nothing. A teenage daughter of the Dutch missionary Anthonius Hambroek became a concubine to Koxinga. She was described by the Dutch commander Caeuw as "a very sweet and pleasing maiden".
Dutch language accounts record this incident of Chinese taking Dutch women as concubines and the date of Hambroek's daughter. Under terms of the Geneva Accords of , departing French troops took thousands of Vietnamese wives and children with them after the First Indochina War. Some Eurasians stayed in Vietnam, after independence from French rule. Ottoman slave traders sold slaves in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries throughout the Persian Gulf , Anatolia , Central Asia and the Arab world and communities descended from these slaves can be found throughout these regions. In , The Sunday Times reported that "Britain has the highest rate of interracial relationships in the world" and certainly the UK has the highest rate in the European Union.
The UK Census included a section entitled 'Mixed' to which 1. Multiracial Canadians in officially totaled 1. Of these, the most frequent combinations were multiple visible minorities for example, people of mixed black and South Asian heritage form the majority, specifically in Toronto , followed closely by white-black , white-Chinese , white-Arab and many other smaller mixes. During the time of slavery in the United States , a very large but unknown number of African American slaves escaped to Canada, where slavery was made illegal in , via the Underground Railroad. Many of these people married in with European Canadian and Native Canadian populations, although their precise numbers and the numbers of their descendants, are not known.
Another 1. In the United States , the census was the first in the history of the country to offer respondents the option of identifying themselves as belonging to more than one race. This multiracial option was considered a necessary adaptation to the demographic and cultural changes that the United States has been experiencing. Multiracial Americans officially numbered 6. Prior to the midth century, many people hid their multiracial heritage. The development of binary thinking about race meant that African Americans, a high proportion of whom have also had European ancestry, were classified as black. Some are now reclaiming additional ancestries. Many Americans today are multi-racial without knowing it. In , the number of Americans who checked both "black" and "white" on their census forms was percent higher than it had been a decade earlier.
According to James P. Allen and Eugene Turner, by some calculations in the Census, the multiracial population that is part white is as follows:. The stigma of a mixed race heritage, associated with racial discrimination among numerous racial groups, has decreased significantly in the United States. People of mixed-race heritage can identify themselves now in the U. Census by any combination of races, whereas before Americans were required to select from only one category. For example, in , they were offered choices of one or more racial categories from the following list: .
Many mixed raced Americans use the term biracial. The US has a growing multiracial identity movement, reflective of a desire by people to claim their full identities. Interracial marriage , most notably between whites and blacks, was historically deemed immoral and illegal in most states in the 18th, 19th and first half of the 20th century because of its long association of blacks with the slave caste. California and the Western United States had similar laws to prohibit European-Asian marriages, which was associated with discrimination against Chinese and Japanese on the West Coast. Virginia overturned all remaining US anti-miscegenation laws. The United States is one of the most racially diverse countries in the world.
Americans are mostly multi-ethnic descendants of various immigrant nationalities culturally distinct in their former countries. Assimilation and integration took place, unevenly at different periods of history, depending on the American region. The "Americanization" of foreign ethnic groups and the inter-racial diversity of millions of Americans has been a fundamental part of its history, especially on frontiers where different groups of people came together. On January 20, , Barack Obama was sworn in as America's first multiracial president,  as he is the son of a European American mother and a Luo father from Kenya. He acknowledges both parents. His official White House biography describes him as African American.
Fiji has long been a multi-ethnic country, with a vast majority of people having multi-racial heritages even if they do not self-identify in that manner. The indigenous Fijians are of mixed Melanesian and Polynesian ancestry, resulting from years of migration of islanders from various places mixing with each other. Fiji Islanders from the Lau group have intermarried with Tongans and other Polynesians over the years. The Indo-Fijian population is also a hodge-podge of South Asian immigrants called Girmits in Fiji , who came as indentured labourers beginning in While a few of these labourers managed to bring wives, many of them either took or were given wives once they arrived in Fiji.
The Girmits, who are classified as simply "Indians" to this day, came from many parts of the Indian subcontinent of present-day India , Pakistan and to a lesser degree Bangladesh and Myanmar. It is easy to recognize the Indian mixtures present in Fiji and see obvious traces of Southern and Northern Indians and other groups who have been categorised together. To some degree, even more of this phenomenon would have likely happened if the religious groups represented primarily Hindu, Muslim and Sikh had not resisted to some degree marriage between religious groups, which tended to be from more similar parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The latter are often descendants of shipwrecked sailors and settlers who came during the colonial period. Migration from a dozen or more different Pacific countries Tuvalu , Solomon Islands , Vanuatu , Samoa and Wallis and Futuna being the most prevalent have added to the various ethnicities and intermarriages. Mestizo is the common word used to describe multiracial people in Latin America , especially people with Native American and Spanish or other European ancestry. Mestizos make up a large portion of Latin Americans, comprising a majority in many countries. In Latin America, racial mixture was officially acknowledged from colonial times. There was official nomenclature for every conceivable mixture present in the various countries.
Initially, this classification was used as a type of caste system, where rights and privileges were accorded depending on one's official racial classification. Official caste distinctions were abolished in many countries of the Spanish -speaking Americas as they became independent of Spain. Several terms have remained in common usage. Race and racial mixture have played a significant role in the politics of many Latin American countries. In most countries, for example Mexico , Dominican Republic and Panama , a majority of the population can be described as biracial or multiracial depending on the country. Colonialism throughout the West Indies has created diverse populations on many islands, including people of multiracial identities.
Of note is the mixture of West African communities , most brought to the region as slaves and East Indian settlers most of whom came as indentured labor after the abolition of slavery. Trinidad and Tobago , Guyana and Suriname claim the highest populations of such mixtures, known locally as douglas. In addition to such mixtures, many inhabitants of the West Indies can also have any combination of Amerindian , Latino , European , Chinese , Arab and Jewish heritage.
According to the official census, The term pardo is formally used in the official census but is not used by the population. In Brazilian society, most people who are multiracial call themselves moreno : light- moreno or dark- moreno. Those terms are not considered offensive and focus more on skin color than on ethnicity it is considered more like other human characteristics such as being short or tall.
The most common multiracial groups are between European and African mulatto and Amerindian and European caboclo or mameluco. All groups are more or less found throughout the whole country. Brazilian multiracials with the following three origins, Amerindian, European and African, make up the majority. It is said today [ who? Since multiracial relations in Brazilian society have occurred for many generations, some people find it difficult to trace their own ethnic ancestry.The Kaffirs spoke a distinctive creole based on The Abolitionists Film Analysis, the Sri Essay On Laser Hair Removal Kaffir The Abolitionists Film Analysis, which is now extinct. Something Jewish. Many mixed raced The Abolitionists Film Analysis use the term biracial.