✎✎✎ Philosophy Of Personality

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Philosophy Of Personality



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The Science of Personality

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Leonardo has long been regarded as the archetypal Renaissance man , described by the Renaissance biographer Giorgio Vasari as having qualities that "transcended nature" and being "marvellously endowed with beauty, grace and talent in abundance". Leonardo was born to unmarried parents on 15 April , "at the third hour of the night" [4] in the Tuscan hill town of Vinci , in the lower valley of the Arno River in the territory of the Republic of Florence.

The inclusion of the title "ser" indicated that Leonardo's father was a gentleman. Leonardo spent his first five years in the hamlet of Anchiano in the home of his mother, then from lived in the household of his father, grandparents and uncle, Francesco, in the small town of Vinci. His father had married a sixteen-year-old girl named Albiera; [8] Ser Piero married four times and produced children by his two later marriages. At the age of about fourteen Leonardo was apprenticed by his father to the artist Andrea del Verrocchio. Leonardo was eventually to become a paid employee of Verrocchio's studio.

During his time there, Leonardo met many of the most important artists to work in Florence in the late fifteenth century including Sandro Botticelli , Domenico Ghirlandaio and Pietro Perugino. Leonardo helped Verrocchio paint The Baptism of Christ , completed around According to Vasari , Verrocchio, on seeing the beauty of the angel that his young pupil had painted, never painted again. Florence was at this time a Republic , but the city was increasingly under the influence of a single powerful family, the Medici , led by Lorenzo de' Medici , who came to be known as "Lorenzo the Magnificent". In Leonardo commenced an important commission, the painting of a large altarpiece for the church of San Donato in Scopeto.

The work was never completed. Leonardo left Florence and travelled to Milan carrying a gift from Lorenzo to the regent ruler, Ludovico Sforza. He was employed by Ludovico from to , during which time his most important works were the Virgin of the Rocks , the Last Supper and a huge model of a horse for an equestrian monument which was never completed. When Milan was invaded by the French in , Leonardo left and spent some time in Venice, and possibly Rome and Naples before returning to Florence.

In Florence, Leonardo lived at premises of the Servite Community , and at that time drew the large cartoon for the Madonna and Child and St Anne , which attracted a lot of popular attention. In Francesco Melzi joined his household as an apprentice, and remained with him until his death. In Leonardo left Milan for Rome and was employed by the Medici family. In he went to France as court painter to King Francis I. It is said that the king held Leonardo's head as he died.

Leonardo da Vinci was described by his early biographers as a man with great personal appeal, kindness, and generosity. He was generally well loved by his contemporaries. According to Vasari, "Leonardo's disposition was so lovable that he commanded everyone's affection". He was "a sparkling conversationalist" who charmed Ludovico Sforza with his wit. Vasari sums him up by saying:. He was so generous that he fed all his friends, rich or poor Through his birth Florence received a very great gift, and through his death it sustained an incalculable loss.

In the normal course of events many men and women are born with various remarkable qualities and talents; but occasionally, in a way that transcends nature, a single person is marvellously endowed by heaven with beauty, grace and talent in such abundance that he leaves other men far behind Everyone acknowledged that this was true of Leonardo da Vinci, an artist of outstanding physical beauty who displayed infinite grace in everything he did and who cultivated his genius so brilliantly that all problems he studied were solved with ease.

Small rooms or dwellings set the mind in the right path, large ones cause it to go astray. If you want money in abundance, you will end by not enjoying it. Some of Leonardo's philosophies can be found in a series of fables he wrote for the court of Ludovico Sforza. These were presented as jests labelled 'prophecies' in which he told a riddle and made his audience guess the title.

Leonardo also had a distinctive sense of humour, showing newfound friends a lizard he had decorated in scales, a horn and beard made from quicksilver to surprise them, [14] and describing a practical joke in his Treatise on Painting :. If you want to make a fire which will set a hall in a blaze without injury, do this: first perfume the hall with a dense smoke of incense or some other odoriferous substance: it is a good trick to play. Little is known about Leonardo's intimate relationships from his own writing. Some evidence of Leonardo's personal relationships emerges both from historic records and from the writings of his many biographers. Leonardo maintained long-lasting relationships with two pupils who were apprenticed to him as children.

These were Gian Giacomo Caprotti da Oreno , who entered his household in at the age of 10, [16] [17] and Count Francesco Melzi, the son of a Milanese aristocrat who was apprenticed to Leonardo by his father in , at the age of 14, remaining with him until his death. Vasari describes him as "a graceful and beautiful youth with fine curly hair". Melzi accompanied Leonardo in his final days in France.

On Leonardo's death he wrote a letter to inform Leonardo's brothers, describing him as "like an excellent father to me" and goes on to say: "Everyone is grieved at the loss of such a man that Nature no longer has it in her power to produce. He was not to see this project fully realized, but gathered the Codex Urbinas. Little is self-revealed about Leonardo's sexuality, as, although he left hundreds of pages of writing, very little of it is personal in nature. He left no letters, poetry or diary that indicate any romantic interest.

He never married and it cannot be stated with certainty that he had a sexually intimate relationship with any person, male or female. One of the few references that Leonardo made to sexuality in his notebooks states: "The act of procreation and anything that has any relation to it is so disgusting that human beings would soon die out if there were no pretty faces and sensuous dispositions. He also wrote "Intellectual passion drives out sensuality.

Whoso curbs not lustful desires puts himself on a level with the beasts. The only historical document concerning Leonardo's sexual life is an accusation of sodomy made in , [20] while he was still at the workshop of Verrocchio. The denunciation accused four people of sodomizing Saltarelli: Leonardo da Vinci, a tailor named Baccino, Bartolomeo di Pasquino, and Leonardo Tornabuoni, a member of the aristocratic Tornabuoni family. Saltarelli's name was known to the authorities because another man had been convicted of sodomy with him earlier the same year. The same accusation did in fact appear on 7 June, but charges were again dismissed.

Such accusations could be made secretly, but not anonymously. There is speculation that since the family of one of the accused, Leonardo Tornabuoni, was associated with Lorenzo de' Medici , the family exerted its influence to secure the dismissal. It was also an offence for which punishment was very seldom handed down in contemporary Florence, where homosexuality was sufficiently widespread and tolerated to make the word Florenzer Florentine slang for homosexual in Germany. A comedic illustration made in for a poem by Gaspare Visconti may depict Leonardo as a court lawyer with allusions to his alleged homosexual proclivities.

Elizabeth Abbott, in her History of Celibacy , contends that, although Leonardo was probably homosexual, the trauma of the sodomy case converted him to celibacy for the rest of his life. Freud claimed the symbolism was clearly phallic, but argued that Leonardo's homosexuality was latent, and that he did not act on his desires. Other authors contend that Leonardo was actively homosexual. Serge Bramly states that "the fact that Leonardo warns against lustfulness certainly need not mean that he himself was chaste". Friedman argues that Leonardo's notebooks show a preoccupation with men and with sexuality uninterrupted by the trial and agrees with art historian Kenneth Clark that Leonardo never became sexless.

Michael White, in Leonardo: The First Scientist , says it is likely that the trial simply made Leonardo cautious and defensive about his personal relationships and sexuality, but did not dissuade him from intimate relationships with men: "there is little doubt that Leonardo remained a practising homosexual". Leonardo's late painting of Saint John the Baptist is often cited as support of the case that Leonardo was homosexual.

The particular drawing, showing an angel with an erect phallus, was rediscovered in a German collection in It appears to be a humorous take on Leonardo's St. John the Baptist. Leonardo da Vinci had a number of powerful patrons, including the King of France. He had, over the years, a large number of followers and pupils. Vasari says of the child Leonardo "He would have been very proficient in his early lessons, if he had not been so volatile and flexible; for he was always setting himself to learn a multitude of things, most of which were shortly abandoned.

When he began the study of arithmetic, he made, within a few months, such remarkable progress that he could baffle his master with the questions and problems that he raised All the time, through all his other enterprises, Leonardo never ceased drawing Leonardo's father, Ser Piero, realising that his son's talents were extraordinary, took some of his drawings to show his friend, Andrea del Verrocchio , who ran one of the largest artists' workshops in Florence. Leonardo was accepted for apprenticeship and "soon proved himself a first class geometrician". Vasari says that during his youth Leonardo made a number of clay heads of smiling women and children from which casts were still being made and sold by the workshop some 80 years later.

Among his earliest significant known paintings are the Annunciation in the Uffizi, the angel that he painted as a collaboration with Verrocchio in The Baptism of Christ , and a small predella of the Annunciation to go beneath an altarpiece by Lorenzo di Credi. The little predella picture is probably the earliest. The diversity of Leonardo's interests, remarked on by Vasari as apparent in his early childhood, was to express itself in his journals which record his scientific observations of nature, his meticulous dissection of corpses to understand anatomy, his experiments with machines for flying, for generating power from water and for besieging cities, his studies of geometry and his architectural plans, as well as personal memos and creative writing including fables.

There is not much firsthand information about Leonardo's religious inclination, but most historians have deemed him as Catholic. Leonardo could be described as a spiritual metaphysician , [42] who was interested in Greek philosophy such as that of Plato [43] and Aristotle. He describes friars as the "fathers of the people who know all secrets by inspiration" and calls books such as the Bible "supreme truth", [44] while also jesting that "Many who hold the faith of the Son only build temples in the name of the Mother. Leonardo argues against the myth of a universal flood as in the story of Noah , doubting that so much water could have evaporated away from the Earth. Leonardo discredited pagan mythology as well, saying that gods the size of planets would appear as mere specks of light in the universe.

He also calls these personifications "mortal Leonardo sent the following letter to Ludovico Sforza , the ruler of Milan, in Most Illustrious Lord: Having now sufficiently seen and considered the proofs of all those who count themselves masters and inventors in the instruments of war, and finding that their invention and use does not differ in any respect from those in common practice, I am emboldened I can construct bridges which are very light and strong and very portable with which to pursue and defeat an enemy I can also make a kind of cannon, which is light and easy of transport, with which to hurl small stones like hail I can noiselessly construct to any prescribed point subterranean passages — either straight or winding — passing if necessary under trenches or a river I can make armored wagons carrying artillery, which can break through the most serried ranks of the enemy.

In time of peace, I believe I can give you as complete satisfaction as anyone else in the construction of buildings, both public and private, and in conducting water from one place to another. I can execute sculpture in bronze, marble or clay. Also, in painting, I can do as much as anyone, whoever he may be. If any of the aforesaid things should seem impossible or impractical to anyone, I offer myself as ready to make a trial of them in your park or in whatever place shall please your Excellency, to whom I commend myself with all possible humility.

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