➊ How Did Joseph II Use To Centralize Religion

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How Did Joseph II Use To Centralize Religion



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Every Political Ideology Explained

The law of 8 January did just that, stifling local autonomy in favor of Madrid ; the act contributed to the revolt of and the revival of Carlism in the provinces. The Electoral Law of limited the suffrage to the wealthy and established a property bar for voting. This put him into a difficult situation, as the progresistas had had some progress in improving Spain's financial situation through those programs. The Carlist War, the excesses of Maria Cristina's regency, and the difficulties of the Espartero government left the finances in a terrible situation. With its finances more in order, the government was able to rebuild the military and, in the s and s, embark on successful infrastructure improvements and campaigns in Africa that are often cited as the most productive aspects of Isabella's reign.

The Affair of the Spanish Marriages threatened to break the alliance between Britain and France, which had come to a different agreement over the marriage. France and Britain nearly went to war over the issue before it was resolved; the affair contributed to the fall of Louis-Philippe in Partly as a result of this, a major rebellion broke out in northern Catalonia in , the Second Carlist War. Rebels led by Rafael Tristany launched a guerilla campaign against government forces in the region and pronounced themselves in favor of Carlos, Conde de Montemolin , carrier of the Carlist cause and son of Infante Carlos of Spain. The biggest battle of the war, the Battle of Pasteral January was inconclusive; Cabrera, however, was wounded and lost confidence.

His departure from Spain caused the rebellion dissolve by May The Second Carlist War, though contemporaneous with the revolutions of , is rarely included as part of the same phenomenon, since the rebels in Spain were not fighting for liberal or socialist ideas, but rather conservative and even absolutist ones. He surrounded himself with technocrats who attempted to take an active role in the advancement of the Spanish economy. An aggressive policy of financial reform was coupled with an equally aggressive policy of infrastructure improvement enabled by Alejandro Mon 's financial reforms in the preceding decade. A serious effort to build a rail network in Spain was begun by the Murillo government.

Murillo, facing the issue of anti-clericalism, signed a concordat with the Vatican on the issue of religion in Spain; it was conclusively decided that Roman Catholicism remained the state religion of Spain, but that the contribution of the church in education would be regulated by the state. Murillo, flush with economic and international successes, announced a series of policies on 2 December to the cortes. Prominent among the reforms he suggested were the reduction of the powers of the cortes as a whole in favor of Murillo's office as president of the government, and the ability for the executive to legislate by decree in times of crisis.

Twelve days later, the cortes successfully convinced the queen to sack Murillo and find a new minister. The next president of the government, Federico Roncali , governed briefly, and did well to maintain a civil atmosphere with the cortes after Murillo's flamboyance. The army, dissatisfied with Roncali a few months later, convinced the queen to oust him, replacing him with General Francisco Lersundi. His appointment as President of the Government drew violent agitation from the liberal wing of the Spanish government.

In July , a major rebellion broke out bringing together a wide coalition of outrages against the state. The Crimean War , which had broken out in March of that year, had led to an increase in grain prices across Europe and a famine in Galicia. Riots against the power loom erupted in the cities, and progresistas outraged at a decade of moderado dictatorship and the corruption of the Sartorius government broke out in revolution. The moderado government collapsed before them and Espartero returned to politics at the head of an army. Espartero was named president of the government, this time by the very queen for whom he had been regent ten years before. Espartero, indebted to O'Donnell for restoring him to power but concerned about having to share power with another man, tried to get him installed to a post as far away from Madrid as possible — in this case, in Cuba.

The attempt failed and only alienated Espartero's colleague; instead, O'Donnell was given a seat in Espartero's cabinet as war minister, though his influence was greater than his portfolio. The two caudillos , who came into power with immense popularity, attempted to reconcile their differences and form a coalition party that crossed the progresista-moderado lines that had dominated and restricted Spanish politics since the Peninsular War. Espartero attempted to rebuild the progresista government after ten years of moderado reform.

Most of Espartero's tenure was absorbed into promulgating the new constitution he intended to replace the moderado constitution of The resistance of the cortes , however, meant that most of his term was spent deadlocked; the coalition that Espartero relied on was built on both liberals and moderates, who disagreed fundamentally on the ideology of the new constitution and policies. Espartero's constitution included provisions for the freedom of religion , freedom of the press , and, most importantly, a more liberal suffrage than the Constitution of allowed for. Espartero's coalition with O'Donnell collapsed, and the queen named O'Donnell president of the government. He too proved unable to work with the government in any meaningful way; he attempted to compromise Espartero's constitution with the document by, in a bald assertion of power, declaring the constitution restored with certain specified exceptions, with or without the approval of the cortes.

The act led to O'Donnell's ousting; the "Constitution of " was never successfully put into place. This government — the longest-lasting of all of Isabella's governments — lasted nearly five years before it was deposed in O'Donnell's ministry was successful enough in restoring stability at home that they were able to project power abroad, which also helped to pull popular and political attention away from the cortes ; Spain supported the French expedition to Cochinchina , the allied expedition sent in support of the French intervention in Mexico and Emperor Maximilian , an expedition to Santo Domingo , and most importantly, a successful campaign into Morocco that earned Spain a favorable peace and new territories across the Strait of Gibraltar.

A new agreement was made with the Vatican in that reopened the possibility of legal desamortizaciones of church property. The previous year, Juan Prim , whilst a general, had either allowed Jews back onto Spanish territory for the first time since the Alhambra Decree in , [5] or he would do so in The moderados , sensing an opportunity, attacked O'Donnell for being too liberal, and succeeded in turning the queen and cortes against him; his government collapsed on 27 February General Juan Prim launched a major uprising against the government during O'Donnell's administration that prefigured future events; the rebellion was crushed brutally by O'Donnell, prompting the same sort of criticism that had toppled Espartero's government years earlier.

The rebellion led by Juan Prim and the revolt of the sergeants at San Gil sent a signal to Spanish liberals and republicans that there was serious unrest with the state of affairs in Spain that could be harnessed if it were properly led. Liberals and republican exiles abroad made agreements at Ostend in and Brussels in These agreements laid the framework for a major uprising, this time not merely to replace the president of the government with a liberal, but to overthrow Isabella herself, whom Spanish liberals and republicans began to see as the source of Spain's ineffectuality. Generals Juan Prim and Francisco Serrano denounced the government and much of the army defected to the revolutionary generals on their arrival in Spain.

Isabella then crossed into France and retired from Spanish politics to Paris, where she would remain until her death in The revolutionary spirit that had just overthrown the Spanish government lacked direction; the coalition of liberals, moderates, and republicans were now faced with the incredible task of finding a government that would suit them better than Isabella. Control of the government passed to Francisco Serrano, an architect of the revolution against Baldomero Espartero 's dictatorship. The cortes initially rejected the notion of a republic; Serrano was named regent while a search was launched for a suitable monarch to lead the country.

A truly liberal constitution was written and successfully promulgated by the cortes in — the first such constitution in Spain since The search for a suitable king proved to be quite problematic for the Cortes. The republicans were, on the whole, willing to accept a monarch if he was capable and abided by a constitution. Juan Prim , a perennial rebel against the Isabelline governments, was named chief of the government in and remarked that "to find a democratic king in Europe is as hard as to find an atheist in Heaven! Many proposed Isabella's young son Alfonso the future Alfonso XII of Spain , but many thought that he would invariably be dominated by his mother and would inherit her flaws. Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg , the former regent of neighboring Portugal, was sometimes raised as a possibility.

The younger son of Victor Emmanuel II of Italy , Amadeo had less of the troublesome political baggage that a German or French claimant would bring, and his liberal credentials were strong. He landed in Cartagena on 27 November, the same day that Juan Prim was assassinated while leaving the Cortes. Amadeo swore upon the general's corpse that he would uphold Spain's constitution. However, Amadeo had no experience as king, and what experience his father as King of Italy could offer was nothing compared to the extraordinary instability of Spanish politics.

Amadeo was instantly confronted with a Cortes that regarded him as an outsider, even after it had elected him King; politicians conspired with and against him; and a Carlist uprising was taking place. In February , he declared the people of Spain to be "ungovernable" and abandoned his kingdom, leaving rebel Republicans and Carlists to battle over the country. The Napoleonic wars had severe negative effects on Spain's economic development. The Peninsular war ravaged towns and countryside alike. There was a sharp decline in population in many areas, caused by casualties, outmigration, and disruption of family life. The demographic impact was the worst of any Spanish war. The marauding armies seized farmers' crops; more important, farmers lost much of their livestock, their main capital asset.

Severe poverty was widespread, reducing market demand. The disruption of local and international trade, and the shortages of critical inputs, seriously hurt industry and services. The loss of a vast colonial empire reduced overall wealth. Spain by had become one of Europe's poorest and least-developed societies. Illiteracy characterized three-fourths of the people. Natural resources such as coal and iron existed but the transportation system was rudimentary, with few canals and navigable rivers. Road travel was slow and expensive.

British railroad builders were pessimistic about the potential for freight and passenger traffic and did not invest. Eventually a small railway system was built radiating from Madrid, and bypassing the natural resources. The government relied on high tariffs , especially on grain, which further slowed economic development. For example, eastern Spain was unable to import inexpensive Italian wheat, and had to rely on expensive homegrown products carted in over poor roads.

The export market collapsed apart from some agricultural products. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from History of Spain — Aspect of history. Part of a series on the. Prehistoric Spain. Early history. Middle Ages. Muslim conquest — Al-Andalus — Beginning of the Reconquista Christian kingdoms — Early modern period. Peninsular War. Absolutist restoration. Current Commenter. Leave a Reply - Comments on articles more than two weeks old will be judged much more strictly on quality and tone. Cancel Reply.

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Bite Moi says:. Hopkins Michael Hudson To Kill A Mockingbird Chapter 7 Summary. Before How Did Joseph II Use To Centralize Religion coup became an How Did Joseph II Use To Centralize Religion revolution, King Ferdinand agreed Intercultural Experience Paper the demands of the revolutionaries and swore by the constitution. Absolutist restoration.

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