✎✎✎ Peter Skene Ogdens Contributions

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Peter Skene Ogdens Contributions



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Peter Skene Ogden State Scenic Viewpoint 3

The British claim all the region southward to the Columbia River, and label the coastline north of Vancouver Island: "Discovered by Drake in " []. Contains two inserts: "Map to Shew the Communications from the N. We have been unable to locate any examples of this map bound into an atlas and it seems to have been primarily intended to be separately issued, as virtually all surviving examples are dissected, laid on linen and issued with a slip case. A visually striking example of one of the rarest maps of Oregon Territory and the only map of Oregon Territory published in London for the British market. James Wyld Sr. He made many contributions to cartography, including the introduction of lithography into map printing in William Faden, another celebrated cartographer, passed down his mapmaking business to Wyld in In , he was elected an Associate of the Institution of Civil Engineers.

He was one of the founding members of the Royal Geographical Society in Also in , his son, James Wyld Jr. Wyld Sr. James Wyld Jr. He gained the title of Geographer to the Queen and H. Prince Albert. Mexique ou Nouvelle Espagne. A Chart of the Gulf of St. Fine example of Sayer and Bennett's chart of the Gulf of St. Laurence, based on the surveys by James Cook and Michael Lane. Large engraved mapsheet, comprising six inset maps related to the coast of Acadia and Ile Royale, published by Depot de la Marine in the mids. Plat of the Claim of Marcus W. Rasbach to mining rights first claimed on June 30, New England.

Carolus, Prinzen von Gross Britannien. Search Terms. Sign In Email. Forgot Password Create Account. This item has been sold, but you can enter your email address to be notified if another example becomes available. Email Address Get Notified. Download Small Image. Map Maker. Map of the Oregon Districts and the Adjacent Country. Sell Us a Map. Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest. Email a Friend. Image purchase not available. Authenticity Guarantee. All of our maps are authentic antique maps, printed or drawn on or about the date shown in the description. In rare instances when we offer facsimiles, we will specifically describe the map as a later facsimile and include the date of publication.

Certificates of Authenticity are available upon request. Simply mention your desire to receive one in the Notes section at checkout. Fast, Global Shipping. Last year we shipped over 4, antique maps to more than 50 countries. Maps are shipped Monday through Friday year-round. If an order is received after that time, we will ship the next day. Rhoades, L. He came to Oregon in , and to Washington in Probably no couple in the state were married younger than Mr. Rhoades, he being 16 years and she 15 years old in when united. She and ten children were left. Heleft a wife, five children and fourteen grandchildren. He came to California in , and to Washington in She came with her parents Packwoods to Washington in Nine sons and daughters were left.

Russell, D. He came to California in He engaged in the Civil War. In he came to Washington Territory. A wife and four children wereleft. Bersch, Mary—Born in Switzerland, Dec. Bersch came to the United States in and to Washington in Her living descendants included sixchildren, forty grandchildren and eight great grandchildren. She was a widow, but had three children. Dougherty, Thomas A. His wife—born in and who came to Washington in —died three weeks before him. Dougherty, came to Oregon in , and hismother, Mary Chambers, in , both coming to Pierce county before His mother, a brother and a sister survive him.

Freeman, Rosina—Died in Seattle, Sept. She was thewife of Thomas P. Freeman, who came to California from Pennsylvania in She followed in They removed to Seattle in They werecolored people. He died about twelve years ago. A daughter is all thatis left of their family. Krumm came from Ohio to California in , and ten [Pg 28] years later movedon to Washington, settling in White River valley. He left a wife, twosons, two daughters and three grandchildren. Phelps, Susan E. She cameto California in , and to Washington in One daughter was heronly descendant. She came to Oregon in , and to Washington in She left eight daughters and two sons, besides sisters, brothers andother relatives.

He came to California in , and to Washington Territory in He was identified as an employee with Messrs. Pope, Talbot andKeller in the location and erection of the saw mills that have beenoperating at Port Gamble for the last sixty years. When Keller retiredWalker took his place as the Puget Sound head, and for almost half acentury so remained.

Under him the company acquired other saw mills atUtslady and Port Ludlow, timber lands, ships and other properties. Thecompany in its early days built a steamer which it called the CyrusWalker, and which had a longer existence on Puget Sound than any othercraft. Walker acquired large personal properties, and became one ofthe wealthiest men in the state. He left a wife and son.

Married in to Daniel Bagley, whodied in , she and he removed to Illinois, where they remained until, when they came to Oregon. In they moved on to the north,to Washington, from Salem to Seattle. He was chiefly instrumental inbuilding the second church in the city—the Methodist Protestant—andof the location and building of the Territorial University in Ason, the well known Clarence B. Bagley, survives them. She was the daughter of Frederick Meyer, one of thesoldiers under Captain Hill, who established Fort Steilacoom in She left six sons and four daughters. He came to Oregon in , where heremained until his removal to Washington, a few years ago. His wife remains. Williamson, John R. He came to California in ; [Pg 29] andto Washington in , with Cyrus Walker and the others who were hereto build a saw mill at Port Gamble.

There he was employed for severalyears, and a similar time at Seabeck in a like work, when, in , hejoined with others in a saw mill enterprise at Freeport, now Seattle. He was an engineer, a machinist, an iron founder—in fact, a mastermechanic. He left a son and a daughter. Miller, Edward—Born at Syracuse, N. He was a farmer, a trader, an early day PugetSound navigator.

A widow, two daughters and a son were left. Cook, James W. He came to Portland from Chicago in He was one ofthe first men to go into the salmon canning business, more than fortyyears ago. His surviving relatives include his wifeand two daughters. He came to California in , andto Bellingham in A son and two daughters were left. Stevens, Margaret L. She came to Washington Territory in , and the house thatwas built for her sixty years ago still stands in Olympia, one of theoldest buildings in the state.

She was in Washington City during hisCongressional and later military careers, but returned to the Territoryin , with her then grown children. After some years the familyremoved to Boston. A son, two daughters, five grandchildren and twogreat grandchildren are her living descendants. Bean, Sarah L. She came to Washington in Herparents, Mr. Bean, came to Oregon in Eliza Titusdied. She crossed the plains with her parents, named Rice, who took adonation claim sixty years ago. Eliza was twice married, first to JohnS. Pollock, and in to M. She left four children by thefirst marriage. He came toCalifornia in , and to Washington Territory in He publisheda newspaper at Steilacoom and later one at Olympia, during the firstfourteen years of his residence in Washington.

His was the first dailypaper in Olympia. He was also engaged in the first newspaper publishedin Tacoma. He was a member and officer in four churches in Olympia,Tacoma and Seattle, two of which, in and , he assisted inorganizing. He was also more or less engaged in many other enterprisesand works of pioneer days. He left a son, six grandchildren, and twogreat grandchildren. She and her husband, Darius Mead Ross, cameto Oregon in , and lived in that state for twelve years. In they came to Washington, and made their home on a farm in PuyallupValley. Two sons, two daughters, nineteen grandchildren and four greatgrandchildren survive her.

Spooner, Thomas J. In hemoved to Tacoma, but in went back to Oregon. He left a widow andfour sons. Miller, Eva L. She came to Seattle in as the wife of Dr. A son and three stepdaughters were left. Her father was one of the earlyPacific Coast trappers and fur traders. Her mother was an Indian woman. All her own life was spent in this state, a longer time than that ofany other white or half white person known. Shewas the mother of fourteen children, grandmother of fifty-two and greatgrandmother of twenty-one. Brown, Mrs. She was the daughterof Mr. Joseph Axtell, immigrants of Deceasedwas a well-known Pacific Coast navigator, coming around the Horn firstin The barkentine Amelia was one of his latest and longestcommands.

Two daughters and a son are left, in addition torelatives slightly more remote. He was the son of Capt. Parker, who came to Puget Sound more than sixty years ago, andwas one of the first steamboat men and first merchants of theseparts. The son followed the father into the steamboat business. Hewas master of several steamers, including the T. Captain Parker left a mother, two sisters and two brothers.

Prosperous communities sprang up in eastern Oregon andWashington. Idaho, Montana, and British Columbia came into being. Butthe populating of these regions produced acute problems with regardto the Indians, and the point of view of this article is that ofattempting to compare the British and American methods of attackingthese problems. To the usual causes of antagonism between the native and the whiteman there was added in the interior of the Pacific northwest theimpossibility of any retreat of the former; for the frontier wasclosing in from both directions.

The answer seemed patent enough to a good many thoughtful Westerners,who were not cruel men. Silently but irresistibly the purposes of Providence taketheir way through the ages, and across the line of their march treatieswould seem but shreds, and the plans of men on the tide of historybut waifs upon the sea. The writer in the Oregonian, quoted above, held that it was afundamental error in the treatment of Indians to acknowledge theirrights to the soil and to make treaties with them as if they werenations. Governor Ashley, of Montana, also declared that treaty-makingwith Indians ought to cease. I do not consider thelanguage as any too strong when I say, that for us to negotiatetreaties with them as it is usually done is little better than a farce. We profess by such an act to recognize their equality in status and inpower, and to clothe them with a national existence that does not atall pertain to them.

Instead of thus exalting them in mere form, theyshould be treated as they really are, the wards of the government. The rougher element among the whites, who were in contact with theIndians, bothered themselves not at all concerning theories or treatiesand seldom showed towards Indians even ordinary human feeling. Indians were killed by desperadoes in Montana with despicablewantonness. The owner could not recover it, because men feared to testifyagainst one of the roughs: but the Indian was reimbursed by employesof the Umatilla agency. It is fair to remember, in judging of atrocities committed by whites,that not a few of the frontiersmen were inflamed by memories of horriddeeds committed by Indians upon relatives and friends.

In judging of Indian populations, however, and of the relations ofwhites to them, discriminations need to be made. There were withintribes bad Indians and good Indians, just as there were bad whitesand good whites; and it was generally the bad men on both sides thatmade trouble. This difference is dwelt upon in a report of the Committee onIndian Affairs of the Idaho Legislature, which was made in But in South Idaho, throughout that portion of theTerritory south of Snake River, your committee regret to say, a fardifferent condition of affairs has existed from the organization of theTerritory, and still continues. The scattered clans in all this region,known as the Shoshones or Snakes, inhabit a country for the mostpart destitute of timber and game, spreading into wide deserts, andaffording them secure retreats in rugged mountains and deep canyons.

Never having any fixed habitations, they acquire no property except byplunder, and hold none except for temporary subsistence and plunder. So, far from cultivating the soil, or any arts of peace, they haveto a great extent ceased to depend for food upon [Pg 35] fish, grass seeds,crickets, roots, etc. Nothing, therefore, but vigorous war, that willpush them to extremities of starvation or extermination, can ever bringpeace to our borders and security to our highways.

If one tries to imagine himself in the conditions that then existed insouthern Idaho, he will, perhaps, better understand why even humanepeople could have had stern and cruel opinions with regard to thetreatment of some classes of Indians. There was no danger of attackupon settlements of any size; there was, in fact, no declared war. But stock was constantly being stolen, lone men murdered, and packtrains attacked. If a few men pursued the Indians, the latter wouldturn and fight like fiends, and with the advantage of knowledge of thecountry. To dwellers in secure homes, these enumerations may appear notparticularly significant, but to one with understanding of frontierconditions they mean much.

If travellers, for example, had theiranimals stolen, it meant all the discomfort and danger of being leftafoot in a country of great distances. If a rancher had his stock runoff, it meant temporary impoverishment and disablement. For white mento steal horses was quite generally recognized as a capital crime; why,then, compunction for Indians? Men, moreover, who looked down upon themutilated remains of comrades, cut off in the unceasing assassinations,were very likely to vow vengeance upon the whole murderous race.

Finally, there were wider considerations affecting the whole community;Indian attacks deterred packers, freighters, and stage owners,thereby raising freights, delaying mails, making supplies more scarceand costly, impeding immigration, and hindering the investment ofcapital,—in a word, checking prosperity in a way to which no civilizedcommunity would submit. The men who went out to find and to kill Indians who were thus damagingthe communities, were not always nice men; but they often showedself-denial in leaving good-paying employments, and they enduredgreat privations and did a necessary work for civilization.

The exasperation of the southern Idaho communities, under continualIndian harassment, became extreme. This was especially true in Owyhee. That kind of peace is better than treaties. In the case of Indians such as these in southern Idaho, the reservationsystem as yet was impossible; but for the more amenable Indians, wholived farther to the west and north, this system seemed not onlypossible, but necessary. For the mining advance was sweeping away thenative means of subsistence. Game was receding into the more remotelocalities, and the camass and cous grounds were being continuallydevastated by the hogs of settlers. The fish supply, to be sure, stillremained, but the location of the fisheries on the streams along whichmost of the travel proceeded made necessary a contact with whites whichbrought evil results to the Indians.

It was fortunate, therefore, thatarrangements for the establishment of reservations were well under way,when the mining advance began. For the Indians east of the Cascadesthe treaties of ratified in provided five reservations,each the size of a [Pg 37] large county. On all of thesereservations agents were to be stationed, mills were to be erected,farming tools furnished, and schools and teachers provided. The policyitself was conceived on generous, humane, and enlightened principles,and it is doubtful if, under the circumstances, a better could havebeen devised. But the test came in administration; the difficulties andweaknesses, as the system worked out, proved to be many and formidable. Among the first of these obstacles to become apparent was the naturalunfitness of the Indian for civilized life.

It was always a difficult task for a white settler in a new country toget a start in the cultivation of the soil. He had to be able to gainsupport in some manner while he was building his house, breaking up thesoil, and waiting for his crops to mature. Tools were generally scarceand dear, and many shifts and ingenious devices had to be employed. To be sure, the American frontiersman had become so expert in thiswork, that he went at it with comparative ease; but how difficult suchwork is for the untrained white man may be seen today in the case ofEnglishmen coming direct from the old country to western Canada.

Much more difficult it was, then, for the Indians. The ordinary Indianwas very poor, ignorant, and conservative. A few, it was true, hadlarge herds of ponies, but the average Indian might have two or three,and these worthless for the stern work of breaking prairie sod. Theshrewd Indians who owned large herds, moreover, could see no reason forraising crops when stock-raising paid better and was vastly easier andmore agreeable.

And this was the more true when, as on the Umatillareservation, wheat had to be hauled long distances to be ground. Furthermore, it was not at all the proper thing for a common Indian tobegin a new sort of enterprise without the consent and example of hischief. Plowing, and like work, again, was for the Indian inexpressiblyawkward and hard to learn, and, moreover, contrary to his ideas andto the ideas of his women of what a man ought to do. It was entirelynatural that he should prefer to such drudgery, the sport of huntingand fishing and moving around.

It was not his habit to stay in oneplace, for when the camass was ripe he needed to be near the groundswhere it grew, and when the salmon were running it was necessary to beat the fisheries. Moreover, it was not sanitary for those Indians withtheir tepee habits to dwell long in one place; when Indians were forcedto do so, filth [Pg 38] brought disease and death. So, it was a hard, longtask [the white man had been at it for thousands of years], this taskof settling down to the orderliness and laboriousness and anxiety ofcivilized ways,—certainly a task not to be done in a year or decade,according to the swiftness and impatience of Americans. Under the mostfavoring conditions it was a task that demanded time for slow andpainful growth.

In the first place the Government that was finally responsible wasfar away, at its best worked slowly, and was now handicapped by anabsorbing and expensive war. A new party, moreover, was in power, andnew men were at work. The financial problem, which this new party hadto face, was stringent; it was not to be wondered at, therefore, thatfunds indispensable to the right working of the reservation systemreached their destinations tardily. On September 25, , for example,only a portion of the funds appropriated for the Oregon superintendencyin had arrived, and the remainder had been remitted so far behindtime as seriously to impair efficiency. It was, consequently, very difficult to secure and retain efficientemployes. Nor could the business of the Department be economicallyconducted; merchants naturally asked higher prices for goods when paidfor in vouchers.

The practice by agents of issuing vouchers itselfwas a most pernicious and corrupting one, but it was the only way inwhich the agency business could at times be carried on at all. Goodswhich were bought were frequently long delayed for lack of cash fortransportation, or money was borrowed for transportation at the highrates of interest which prevailed on the Coast. Furthermore, the Government did not provide adequate protection [Pg 39] forIndians who were on reservations. We have noticed before how theNez Perces reservation was invaded by miners in defiance of treatyobligations.

A still more conspicuous example of the failure toprovide protection occurred at the Warm Springs reservation, whererepeated raids of the Snakes terrorized and impoverished the agencyIndians and discouraged them from attempting the cultivation of thesoil. The Snakes on one occasion killed or captured many women andchildren, drove off the cattle and horses, both of the Indians andthe Government, compelled the employes to flee for their lives,and plundered the agency. Troops pursued them without effect; and,moreover, hardly had the pursuers returned, when another raid took theremainder of the stock.

No feature of the reservation system was the cause of so muchdissatisfaction to Indians, agents, and superintendents as was thepayment of annuities. Not a few of the Indians of some tribes—notablyof the Nez Perces—were men of self-respect and shrewdness, who feltinsulted at being offered gewgaws and calico. Not good. Like driving horsesinto a corral. Suppose Indians went to Boston and told all the Bostonsto go to one place. Would it be well? I am a poor man, but I will notsay to the Agent, I am a dog.

The Great Spirit will take care of us. Hewill always cause the grass to grow and the water to run. I am somewhatashamed to be here today. My land is not to be sold for a few blanketsand a few yards of cloth. But the goods which they received were ill adapted to their needs,since these goods were not sent in accordance with their own expresseddesires, nor according to the requisition of the agents. At theUmatilla reservation, when Mr. It was held by agents and superintendents that this sort of expenditurewas in itself not wise, since it tended to pauperism and indolence. Itwould have been better, they said, to expend the money for improvementssuch as would help the Indians to become self-supporting,—inparticular for the planting of orchards,—or to pay the Indians fordoing work, rather than to give them articles outright.

At any rate, itwas urged, annuities ought not to be issued to all of each tribe, butonly to such as stayed on the reservation and showed inclination forwork and progress. The reason why there was so much mal-adjustment, so it was universallyclaimed by superintendents and agents, was that the annuity goods werepurchased on the Atlantic coast. Edward R. Geary reportedin from the Oregon Superintendency as follows:. This expenditure does not appear tobe in accordance with the spirit and [Pg 41] intent of these treaties;nor does it meet the just expectations of the Indians. Thus the freight might have been saved, andthe risk and exposure avoided, by which many articles have beendamaged in the transportation.

The successor to Mr. Geary, William H. Rector, wrote as follows in to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs at Washington:. Thiscourse has been pursued ever since the ratification of thetreaties, and still continues to be faithfully observed,notwithstanding the objections and remonstrances of thesuperintendents and agents thereto. They are of inferior quality,unsuited to their wants or tastes. No good can possibly result from such a course,but, on the contrary, great loss. Better articles can be obtainedin this market at a less price, and such as are adapted to theirwants.

This fund should be husbanded and disbursed for objectscalculated to benefit the Indians, and not in such transparenttrash as has usually been received. Hale then advises that annuitiesbe paid only to Indians willing to reside at the reservations and asincentives and aids to work; clothing might be furnished only for theaged or infirm or children attending school. Any articleneeded, for all the purposes specified, can be obtained on this coastat rates equally favorable as in the Atlantic cities; thus saving thevery large expenditures which have heretofore been made in the way offreights. The local superintendents and agents, of course, might have beenin part influenced by desire to benefit the section in which theywere working, and, perhaps, by the design to get expenditures morecompletely into their own hands; and the Government, on the other hand,may have had good reasons for purchasing in New York.

But the unanimityand earnestness of the local officials indicate here a real and gravesource of trouble. We come now to the important question as to how far the local officialsthemselves were honest and capable. The answer to this question isdifficult. Specific charges of peculation and wrong management are frequent. Ona visit to the Nez Perces reservation in Superintendent Kendallfound the only evidence of farming operations by the agency to consistof about three tons of oats in the straw, although the agent had afull force of treaty employes, and ten laborers besides, at an expenseof seven thousand dollars. Yet in , Mr. When Mr. Davenport, agent at the Umatilla reservation,tried to get competitive bids at Portland, dealers were distrustful andsarcastic, because they thought that he, as was common, was ostensiblyseeking bids while in reality having a deal on with some selected firm.

But, indeed, how could it be expected that these administrators wouldbe efficient and honorable when we consider the system under whichthey were appointed and did their work? No civil service rules wereapplied. Men were generally appointed, not because of special fitnesseither through natural aptitude or through administrative training, butbecause of political partisanship and at the demand of some Senator orRepresentative; or, later, they were appointed because of religiousaffiliations at the suggestion of some religious body.

Therecould be no right spirit, indeed, when many government officialsconsidered that the agency system was merely a cheap way of keepingthe Indians quiet, and when the western population in general wasprofoundly skeptical as to the possibility of civilizing the Indian. The outlook was the more discouraging since the great Americanpanacea—education—seemed a dismal failure when applied to theseIndians according to forms then in vogue. But the principal cause of failure of the day schools was the nomadichabits of the parents; hardly had the Indian child started to school,when away would go the family to the fishing or hunting grounds or tothe camass fields. Teachers who were in earnest met this difficultyby establishing boarding schools, where the children could be keptremoved from the parental impulsiveness.

The next step was natural. These schools emphasized practical training, particularly agriculturefor the boys and housekeeping for the girls. This step, taken at a timewhen in American educational methods, comparatively little attentionhad been paid seriously to this phase of education, was significant andproduced good results. There were two terrible evils, prevalent both in British Columbiaand in the territories, which weakened and degraded the Indians andhindered efforts of every sort for improvement.

These were prostitutionand the use of liquor. No more pitiable condition can be imagined than that of the helplessIndian women and girls who were devoted by their husbands and fathersto prostitution among vile whites. The northern Indians brought down tothe Songish reserve at Victoria their young women, many of them girlsfrom ten to fourteen years of age, and remained all summer as pimpsand procurers. In the interior there is lessevidence of its existence, but wherever Indians had a chance to [Pg 45] lingeraround towns, they became demoralized.

Employes agencies prostitutedIndian women or took them for concubines; the Superintendent ofWashington Territory issued a circular warning all employes fromsuch acts. It should very clearly be understood that thesefacts were not true of all tribes in like degree; the tribes in theinterior were more robust physically and morally and farther removedfrom contamination. Nor should the chastity of all the individualsof a tribe be judged by specimens which hung about the towns. Everywhere, both north and south of the Boundary, Indian welfare wasassailed by the liquor traffic, and everywhere the Government engagedin a less or more futile struggle to combat it.

Many of the Indiansundoubtedly believed, like an Indian orator at Ft. Simcoe, that theyhad a right to drink whiskey if they wanted to, especially so longas the white man made it,—and there were always white men ready tosell it. These were hindered by lackof summary powers, by the scarcity of jails, and by the reluctanceof juries to convict. Only on the reservations were the powers ofthe agents ample, and even here they might, in part, be nullified bythe planting of resorts on the edges. The whole power of Governmentin British Columbia, on the other hand, could be utilized for thepunishment of offenders. Magistrates had summary powers, and convictionentailed heavy fines and, in the case of regular dealers, loss oflicense. But the magistrates had the care of immense districts, andthe Indians were not localized as they were in the United States afterthe reservation system was completely established.

Yet this form oflawlessness, in common with other forms, was better checked on thewhole in British Columbia than in the territories. As we turn, now, to consider the efforts to solve the Indian problemin British Columbia, quotations from two American administrators willhelp to set before us the better ordered conditions under Britishrule. These Indians aremore obedient under British rule, which appears to be kind, but firm,than their fellow men with us under any of the systems adopted by ourgovernment. Davenport, towhom we have before referred. The true reason lies in the fact that their system has a moreconstant and restraining influence upon the lawless class in society. There is more individual freedom with us, and consequently more roomfor departure from the normal line of conduct.

This difference isboldly in evidence to those of our citizens who have lived in miningregions governed by Canadian officers, whose official tenure does notdepend upon the mood of the populace. The policy of the Colonial Government of British Columbia with respectto the Indian population was distinguished by the following principalfeatures: 1 Title to the soil was not recognized as belonging tothe Indians; 2 No compensation, therefore, was allowed to Indianseither in the shape of payments, annuities, or of special educationalgrants; 3 Indians were held to be fellow subjects with white men, andentitled, as individuals, to the protection of law, and responsiblefor obedience to law; 4 Sequestration of the native population uponlarge reservations was not followed, but, as settlement progressed,small reserves were assigned to families and septs, in proximity tosettlements of the whites.

The adoption of this policy, so different to that of the United States,was not due to differences between the Indian populations north andsouth of the line. In numbers, organization, and character itis difficult to see why the natives of the one section were the moreadapted to any certain system than those of the other. The initiation of this policy especially with respect to thenon-recognition of Indian title and the withholding of compensation was in part due to pressure for funds in the Colony and to the refusalof the Imperial Government to assume any financial responsibility inthe matter.

Lytton,March 14, This letter was in reply to one from the latter Dec. Douglas endorsed the plan as of advantage both to the Indians and tothe Colony and then sketched the principles upon which he proposed toestablish reserves on the mainland. Such settlements, in the second place, wereto be entirely self-supporting. The Governor here adverted to the planpursued in the United States with regard to Indian reservations, butstated that that plan was expensive to the Government and debasing tothe Indians. The system followed by the Spanish missions in California,likewise, he regarded as defective, in that it kept the Indians ina state of pupilage and did not train them to self-government andself-reliance.

He would avoid the evils of both these systems and, inparticular, cultivate the pride of independence. In the administration of justice the courts of British Columbiatreated the Indian as the white man was treated. Hope Police Book. AnIndian, for stealing money from another was sentenced to two days injail. Two Indians, for being drunk and disorderly, were sent to jailfor twenty-four hours. Simon B. McClure was charged by an Indian withassaulting him and was fined forty shillings. William Welch, chargedby another Indian with the same offense, claimed that the Indian hadbeaten his dog and attacked him with a knife; Welch was let off, andthe Indian was reprimanded. An Indian who struck an Indian woman in theface with a gun had his hair cut off.

The sentences, it will beobserved, were generally light for minor offenses, but not for sellingliquor to Indians. Whites and Chinamen, the records reveal, weretreated exactly as the Indians. Of course for grave offenses Indians,as well as others, were bound over to the assizes. In a number of casesIndians were hung for murder. This even-handed, carefully adjusteddealing out of justice to Indians, whites, and Chinese alike, contrastsplainly with the carelessness, ruthlessness, and lack of system in theterritories.

Millard, Capt. Hope steamboat appeared to answer the complaint of Jim anIndian for having on the 16th inst. It is difficult in the mining regions south of the Line to findsatisfactory records as to how justice was administered to the Indian. The Agents, on their part, had no authority for thepunishment of criminal acts. If they had possessed magisterial powers,both with regard to whites and Indians, justice might have been betteradministered. Local authorities had no [Pg 51] jurisdiction over Indianswho were on reservations, although they sometimes punished those whowere off of them.

Indian criminals, finally, weresometimes arrested by army officials and tried by army courts withscanty consideration. In case of Indian outbreak the British Columbia system aimed to punishoffenders as individuals and not to take revenge on tribes. One ofthe marked features of the history of the Colony of British Columbiais that there was but one serious Indian outbreak during the colonialperiod. The wholetribe went on the warpath, but were subdued by volunteers from NewWestminster and Cariboo. In the British Columbia Indian system, as we have before stated therewas no policy of bestowing annuities or subsidies, although gifts weresometimes made for special reasons. William Duncan, a man of very great experience, wisdom,and success in his dealings with Indians.

To treat the Indians as paupers is to perpetuate theirbaby-hood and burdensomeness. To treat them as savages, whom we fearand who must be tamed and kept in good temper by presents, willperpetuate their barbarism and increase their insolence. I wouldtherefore strongly urge the Government to set their faces against sucha policy. It will thus be seen thatMr. Duncan held substantially the same views with regard to annuitiesas did the Agents and superintendents south of the Line, whosewell-conceived ideas were nullified by the officials and contractors inthe East.

As has before been remarked, the Colony of British Columbia made nospecial effort for the education of the Indians. There were other ways, however, in which the Colonial Government didhelp the Indians at considerable expense. In surveying reserves, and inkeeping whites off of them; in the suppression of the liquor traffic;in exemptions from tolls, taxes, and customs; and in direct pecuniaryaid for the destitute and the sick, the aggregate expenditures andrebates were considerable. We arrive now, finally, at the very important subject of reserves. These Indian reserves of British Columbia are to be clearlydistinguished from the Indian reservations of the United States.

Thelatter were very large in area, were assigned to a tribe or to anumber of tribes, were founded on the principle of sequestration fromthe whites, and were under the oversight of an agent; the reserves ofBritish Columbia were small, were assigned to septs or families, wereoften contiguous to white settlements, and had no special agents. Insize the reserves of British Columbia varied in all degrees from oneacre to six thousand acres. The principle of assigning land in so small amounts, on what we maycall a village system, may have been adopted with special referenceto conditions of life among the Coast Indians or among those of thelower Fraser, for whose use since they made their living by fishingor working for whites a small parcel of land was sufficient but forthe pastoral Indians of the interior it seemed manifestly insufficient.

So long as there was plenty of range, the smallness of the reserveswas not felt, but when whites acquired title to vacant lands and, atthe same time, the wants of the Indians increased, the latter feltthemselves unjustly treated. This the Province refused, butit did consent to grant twenty. This amount still being consideredinsufficient for the Interior Indians by the Dominion Superintendent ofIndian Affairs for British Columbia, he requested that it be raised toforty acres in accordance with the principle then recognized in thepreemption laws of British Columbia, which allowed acres west ofthe Cascades, but east ; but the request was not granted.

In addition to their reserves, however, the Indians of British Columbiahad the right to acquire land outside the reserves on the same termsas white men,—a right not possessed at that time by their kindred tothe South. As to which system, that of British Columbia or that of the UnitedStates, on the whole was the better, is a question difficult, if notimpossible to decide; and it would certainly involve extensive researchin the period subsequent to that of our study and beyond its scope.

Recollections of an Indian Agent. VIII, No. VI, p. Indian Affairs, , p. I, pp. Pacific Monthly, Vol. Of thesoldiers in this expedition 15 were killed, 53 wounded, and 75 more orless seriously frozen. An account may be found in Langford, VigilanteDays and Ways, pp. It is a well-known fact in Western Canada that new emigrants fromthe old country find it much more difficult to get a start than doAmericans or people from Eastern Canada. Affairs, , p. Oregon His. Recollections of an Indian Agent, Quar. I, March , p. Powell concerning the Songish reserve, pp. July 24, The two are clearlydistinguishable.

It isunderstood, however, that the land itself, with these small exceptions,becomes the entire property of the white people forever; it is alsounderstood that we are at liberty to hunt over the unoccupied lands,and to carry on our fisheries as formerly. It was claimed by Hon. Joseph W. Lytton to Governor Douglas, July 31, ,and Sept. Trutch, Commissioner ofLands and Works, Id.

Arthur E. This lecture is in oppositionto the policy which has been pursued. The Roman Catholic missionaries,as well as some clergymen of other denominations, have beenactively sympathetic with the Indian point of view sometimes to theembarrassment of officials; Papers Relating to Indian Land Question,pp. In the establishment of the reserve system, as,indeed, in all dealings with the Indians, the officials of BritishColumbia were more considerate of the prejudices and attachmentsof the Indians than officials in the United States usually were.

Letters, Ms. I, The officials whosejudgments were recorded were Chief Justice Begbie and Mr. He awoke, and in a scuffle one of them shotand wounded him. These Indians called at the lodge of Howlish Wampo, amuch respected Cayuse chief, and then disappeared. Colonel Steinburger,in command at Walla Walla, had the chief arrested, put in chains, andwas dissuaded from executing him only by the earnest solicitations ofthe Indian Agent. The two Indians were afterward arrested and, after afarcical trial by a military commission were executed.

The miner hadnot died. Minersvolunteered and organized in true American fashion and compelled peace. Papers Relating to the IndianLand Question, p. Father Grandidierfrom Okanogan, Id. The prominence given to the name of the Indian Chief Leschi in the Cityof Seattle is sufficient to lend an interest to the following recordof a meeting of pioneers in Pierce County. McElroyof Olympia. McElroy has a fine series of old territorial newspapers. The citizens of Pierce County, W. A committee of five were appointed, consisting of A. Porter, O. White, W. Downey, E. Meeker and M. West, for the purpose ofdrafting resolutions expressing the views of this meeting as regardsthe conduct of Sheriff, Geo.

Williams, U. Commissioner, J. Bachelder, and such of the military officers at the Steilacoom Garrisonas assisted in evading the execution of the law, and likewise thedisgraceful course pursued by Frank Clark. The committee, after retiring for a short time, reported the followingresolutions which were unanimously adopted. WHEREAS, at connivance, as we fully believe, of sheriff Williamsand others, an arrest was made of said Williams for the purpose ofpreventing the execution of Leschi, who had been tried, convicted ofmurder, and sentenced to death, therefore,.

That the aiders, abetters andsympathisers in this high-handed outrage, deserve the unqualifiedcondemnation of all lovers of good, order, and are no longer entitledto our confidence. Army, it being clearly their duty to assist in enforcing thelaw instead of throwing obstacles in the way of its mandates. Bachelder,in issuing a warrant for the arrest of sheriff Williams, on theaffidavit of an Indian, and, as we believe, with full knowledge of theobject to be effected by the arrest, is without the least shadow ofexcuse, and that the interest of the community demands his immediateremoval.

RESOLVED, That we believe that Frank Clark has done all that was in hispower to prevent the execution of the laws, and has been instrumentalin having an affidavit filed, which resulted in the arrest of thesheriff and his deputy, and we brand the act as being unworthy of a lawabiding citizen of this Territory. Tolmie, has, by his own officiousness in this matter, renderedhimself more than obnoxious to the citizens of Pierce County, and thatwe earnestly desire to see the day when our Country shall be rid ofthis incubus on our prosperity. A committee of three was appointed by the Chair, consisting of HenryBradley, A.

Porter and Sam McCaw to circulate the above resolutionsto give such of our citizens as wish, the opportunity to endorse thesame. On motion of A. Lowell, The proceedings [were ordered] published inthe Pioneer and Democrat. On motion the meeting adjourned. Orr, Sec. The Story of the Pony Express. By Glen D. The Pony Express was an incidental enterprise of importance in theattempts to establish rapid communication between the Missouri Riverand the Pacific Coast during the early sixties.

Before the middleof the nineteenth century explorers and traders in the far West hadestablished three great thoroughfares across the continent. The Mormonsettlement of Utah and the discovery of gold in California led tothe establishment of mail routes across the country. In spite ofgovernmental subsidies, the difficulties occasioned by the Indians,the severe weather, especially in the mountains, irregular highwaysand absence of bridges made communication particularly difficultand uncertain. Railroads and telegraph lines were being pushed eastand west, but had not connected when the Civil War approached, andwith it grave fears lest California be lost to the Union.

Rapidcommunication was essential and into this gap was pushed the PonyExpress, a thoroughly organized system of riders who carried themails on horseback between stations maintained along the route. For sixteen months the daring men identified with this work withunsurpassed courage and unflinching endurance kept the two sectionsin communication with each other until, in October, , telegraphwires took the place of flesh and blood as means of communication,and the Pony Express passed into history, and California was saved tothe Union. The Coming Canada. The World Today Series. By Joseph KingGoodrich. Chicago, A. VIII, This book was written not for the specialist in history or politicalscience, but for the general reader, and should be judged from thatstand [Pg 58] point.

It is largely a compilation from satisfactory authorities,but the author relies upon direct knowledge gained by travel duringthe past twenty-five years and he has also received suggestions andstatistics from the various departmental authorities at Ottawa. The range of topics is broad, covering, with the exceptionof present party politics and problems of racial and religiousassimilation, all subjects of major interest.

One excellent chapter is devoted to sources of Canadian wealth;according to the view of the author, the greatness of The ComingCanada is founded upon agricultural products, live stock and kindredindustries, rather than upon its mineral wealth. This seems to bethe keynote of the book. Subjects worthy of especial mention aregovernmental policies for internal development, including the homesteadlaws; railway, past, present and future; and brief discussions of thesocial and economic relations of Canada and the United States. Thedescription of local and central institutions of government is adequatefor the purposes of the general reader.

The historical introduction, comprising the first quarter of the book,is the least satisfactory. It has no independent historical value andthe facts may be obtained elsewhere in briefer and more satisfactoryshape. The notices, however, of official processes by which the presentboundaries of the Dominion were attained, are adequate. The forty illustrations from photographs add greatly to theattractiveness of the volume; but the reviewer regrets that at leastone of them could not have been replaced by a good map.

Prepared by Katharine B. Judson, A. Published by the Washington State Library, Olympia, The compiling of this index involved the examining page by page ofover 2, volumes of documents. One can readily imagine the deadeningdrag of such a piece of work unless it was done by a person with ahistorical sense who saw what a help it would be to those making astudy of Pacific Northwest history from its original sources.

Those whohave tried by themselves to dig out material from early documents know [Pg 59] how helpless they are and they will readily recognize the usefulness ofsuch a reference work as Miss Judson has compiled. It may be interesting to note that the history of no other section ofthe United States has been covered by such an index. There may be some question why the index was not brought down to a datelater than This was unnecessary, as there are adequate generalindexes to government documents from that year to date. This is not the case andit would have been impractical to have attempted to do so, but on theother hand when a document was found to include material on severaltopics, such, for example, as mail service, fisheries, agriculture,it has been listed under these various headings.

Perhaps it is morenearly a catalogue than an index to documents. Arranged as it is underbroad headings rather than specific ones, the index can scarcely beconsidered a ready reference tool, but I am doubtful if it could havebeen made so, at least not without greatly increasing the amount ofwork entailed in compiling it. The index covers a much wider range of topics than the word historyusually is taken to include. Banks and banking, missions, mail service,education, roads, and cost of living are some of the subject headingswhich are used. Accordingly it would seem that the index should proveindispensable to any one who is studying the development of the PacificNorthwest from a social, political, religious, economic, or historicalpoint of view.

Although the index is of primary use to the serious student, still itmakes available much thoroughly readable material for those who haveinterested themselves in the history of the Pacific Northwest merelyfor their own pleasure. By David W. Washington, Carnegie Institution ofWashington, Of the Papers thus far issued by the Department of Historical Researchof the Carnegie Institution of Washington, none can prove of greaterservice to American historical scholarship than the present volume. It will be particularly regretted, by students in these states, thatthe Archives of British Columbia located in the nearby city of Victoriacould not have been adequately listed.

An American History. By Nathaniel W. Stephenson, Professor ofHistory in the College of Charleston. American History and Government. By Willis M. A Short History of the United States. By John S. Bassett,Professor of History in Smith College. New York, The Macmillan Co. These three new textbooks appearing within a few weeks of each otherbear eloquent witness of the activity of the teaching and study ofhistory.

Very great care hasbeen exercised in the selection of illustrations and in some cases theauthor has very wisely chosen those of representative men not usuallypictured in a textbook. A very large number of small maps are used toelucidate the text, and in this respect the author has set a new markin efficient textbook making. In addition to these uses, it will no doubt havea wide sale as a reference book in schools whose library facilitiesare limited. Professor Bassett is always careful about his facts. Theemphasis is well proportioned and the maps well selected. There areno illustrations. Professor West is widely known as a textbookwriter and is just as careful of his facts and proportion as ProfessorBassett, but he has had a different purpose in mind.

He views historynot merely as political history. I have tried to make this interaction thepervading principle in determining the arrangement and selection ofmaterial. At the same time, I have tried to correct the common delusion whichlooks back to Jefferson or John Winthrop for a golden age, and to showinstead that democracy has as yet been tried only imperfectly among us. Writings of John Quincy Adams. Edited by Worthington Ford. New York, The Macmillan Company, Volume 1 of this important set was noted in the Quarterly for April,, page As noted there, the readers in the Pacific Northwestare awaiting with interest the subsequent volumes containing the recordof John Quincy Adams in the diplomacy of Old Oregon.

Decisions, July, , to July, By United StatesGeographic Board. Washington, Government Printing Office, There are here given decisions on geographic names. Of this total asurprising number of decisions are devoted to geographic featuresof the State of Washington. Early American Mountaineers. By Allen H. Reprint fromAppalachia, Vol. XIII, No.

Western mountains come in for a fair share of attention in thisinteresting little monograph. There are a number of portraits, amongwhich may be seen those of David Douglass, the famous early botanistwho wrought in the Pacific Northwest, and General Hazard Stevens, whomade the first ascent of Mount Rainier with P. Van Trump. Myths and Legends of the Great Plains. Selected and edited byKatharine Berry Judson. This is the fourth volume in the series of Myths and Legends edited byMiss Judson. Earlier volumes covering Alaska, The Pacific Northwest,and California and the Old Southwest have been noted in previous issuesof this magazine. One Hundred Years of Peace. By Henry Cabot Lodge. New York,The Macmillan Company, This timely book should find a welcome in the State of Washington,where committees are already at work to celebrate the centennialof peace by the erection of an arch or some other form of imposingmonument where the Pacific Highway passes from the United States intoCanada.

James Harlan. By Johnson Brigham. This latest volume in the very creditable Iowa Biographical Series edited by Benj. James Harlan was a typical Westerner, a man of ruggedsincerity, an orator and debater of no mean ability, an independent andself-reliant leader of a pioneer people. The years of his politicalcareer were entangled with the anti-slavery agitation, the CivilWar, and the confused and trying periods of Reconstruction.

He wasnot perhaps a statesman of first rank, but Iowa does well in settingforth the work of her sons in the very excellent series of which thisvolume forms a creditable addition. On the whole, the volume does notmeasure up to the standard for fairness set by some of the earliervolumes. The Life of Robert Toombs. By Ulrich Bonnell Phillips, Ph. New York,The Macmillan Co. Professor Phillips treats Toombs as an exponent of the social andindustrial history of his period and section and therefore emphasizesthese factors rather than those that are purely biographical. Invery large measure he allows Toombs to speak for himself through hisspeeches and letters.

By Charles A. Rapidly sketching the economic interests in, the movement for the constitution and the property-safeguards inthe election of delegates, he leads up to the most direct contributionin the book, viz. Biographical sketches of the membersare given from this new angle. The basis being a careful study ofthe extant records of the Treasury Department at Washington now usedfor the first time in this connection. Professor Beard states frankly thathis study is fragmentary, but he has unquestionably made available tostudents a body of facts that must be taken into account by anyonedesiring to understand the making of our constitution.

American Antiquarian Society. Worcester, Society, American Jewish Historical Society. Publications, Number Society, American Historical Association. Annual Report, Washington, Govt. American Scenic and Historic Preservation Society. EighteenthAnnual Report, Albany, Lyon, Illinois State Historical Society. Transactions for the year Springfield, State Historical Library, Kansas State Historical Society.

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