⌚ La Mate Foods Case Study
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Moving through the landscape together with the research team, the farmers and their families demonstrated not only their TEK, but these walks would often trigger memories or additional information about erva-mate production, particularly in terms of how their own property and practices have changed over time. These experiences also demonstrated their environmental subjectivities and how their own history, and we would argue identities, are written into the landscape Santos-Granero To code the interviews for analysis, the research team collaboratively identified a hierarchical tree of themes and subthemes related to the guiding questions used in the interviews and those that emerged during the discussions themselves.
Because this is an ongoing project, coding is still in progress; nevertheless, a preliminary review has highlighted some interesting emergent themes that were not necessarily expected by the research team. One of the most salient themes that has emerged from the oral history interviews is the clear tensions between government regulations, laws, institutions, and daily lived experience and practices on traditional erva-mate producing farms. This is a topic that was not captured in the interview guiding questions yet emerged in more than half of the interviews.
Current legal restrictions on forest use in Southern Brazil have created a situation in which farmers feel they cannot use the resources they have protected and fostered for generations, whereas government institutions, and often conservationists, assume that without these restrictive laws, forest resources on small-scale farms would be decimated. In this view, land users, and land-owners in particular, are considered to be ill suited - from their very character and lack of expertise - to deal responsibly with a precious natural heritage.
These laws place significant restrictions on the amount and type of management that can occur in forests on private property. However, farmers feel that they are being disproportionately affected by the law; unlike the large-scale agribusinesses that are responsible for much of the deforestation that has occurred, they lack the legal and economic resources to fight the fines they may incur if they harvest their forest resources, despite the fact that these practices are based on deep knowledge of the environment and generations of shared knowledge and practice.
Erveiros do not want to deforest their land because this would remove the very ecosystem that supports their erva-mate production and contradict their real affective relationship with and ethical understanding of the forest, but rather they want to remove fallen or dying trees, maintain optimal forest canopy cover, or harvest specific individuals to use for other purposes on the farm, such as for roasting the erva-mate leaves or making fence posts. However, the current regulatory system requires landowners to obtain permission from local environmental protection agencies that continue to view small-scale producers as drivers of deforestation; requests are generally denied. Meanwhile, three different government bodies, i.
Nevertheless, the erveiros we interviewed recognize that they have played an important role in conserving forests, often increasing forest cover over the last generation. They know that their forests and farms provide a range of ecosystem services and benefits for society as a whole, such as protecting water springs and maintaining riparian forests. Erveiros are not the uneducated, poor, outdated rural folk society assumes them to be, but stewards of an environment who harbor a deep understanding of a forest, which provides the environmental services and products that are necessary for the country to thrive, let alone confront changing climates, food insecurity, and a range of other issues.
Incorporating their historical environmental knowledge from the very outset, and valuing collective environmental knowledge, they argue, is key to democratising conservation. Another major theme that permeated the interviews that we have conducted to date is a preoccupation on the part of erveiros on the lack of autonomy in selling their products for a fair price and the insecurity that these traditional systems will not continue into the future. One of the biggest problems with the current erva-mate production systems is that most large-scale production is funneled through a few medium and large corporations that control prices paid for erva-mate leaves Fig.
This topic was discussed by almost all interviewees because it was a theme included in the guiding questions, but the depth of the problem and its effects on small-scale producers was prevalent in our discussions. Today, the municipality has eight large erva-mate processing factories and several smaller factories, the majority of which do not differentiate prices significantly between traditionally grown, shaded erva-mate, and those grown in monoculture stands, with the consequent use of agrochemicals. Because the producers have little autonomy over the processing of erva-mate, they are dependent on an industry that does not value or differentiate between the products they produce. There is a real concern among erveiros that this lack of recognition will mean the end of traditional systems because new developments in monoculture stands can produce significantly higher yields through cloning, fertilization, and pest control.
Erveiros recognize that the end of this traditional system means not only the end of a cultural and environmental practice and consciousness, but likely the end of the forest they have taken care to protect. This anxiety about the future of the system is compounded by the lack of interest or engagement many young people have in traditional farming practices. As is the case in many rural areas throughout Brazil, there has been a significant exodus of young people to cities in the hopes of attaining a better life Abramovay Some that do decide to continue farming do so with a very different mindset, having undertaken agronomy courses at local universities that disproportionately focus on modern agricultural practices, including mechanization, the use of agrochemicals, and clearing land for monoculture commodities.
Thus, although these young people may decide to stay on the farm, their education tells them that traditional practices are outdated and in need of modernization. These two major themes, related to tensions between policy and practice and concern for the future, permeated the discussions and narratives we have been documenting and echo similar concerns in traditional and indigenous agroforestry communities around the world. One of the major challenges traditional communities face is policies that disregard TEK or emphasize conservation over local livelihoods and well-being.
In Iran, Valipour et al. They also underscored, however, that innovative management approaches that integrate traditional knowledge and practices with ecosystem regeneration goals have not been considered. In the Brazilian Amazon, a recent study has examined the complex relationship between government agencies and local communities in an extractive reserve, particularly in terms of promoting biodiversity conservation, and highlights the need for local communities to have agency in their interaction with government authorities and for government institutions to support decision making at the local level Mooij et al.
Examples of the importance of integrating local and traditional knowledge and forest management practices in local-scale efforts to restore forests, reduce poverty, and increase food security have been highlighted in several country-level studies by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature IUCN and the World Resources Institute WRI , including Brazil and Guatemala Kumar et al.
Furthermore, recent high-level reports i. The information from the oral history interviews are being integrated into our transdisciplinary research, which includes a range of scientific and community perspectives and is beginning to inform several outcomes and strategies in our partner communities. One major development in terms of legitimizing and supporting the traditional knowledge and practices of our partners is the optimization and replication of these systems as models for forest resource management and productive forest restoration.
The legal regulations that severely limit the use of forested areas Legal Reserves and Areas of Permanent Protection on rural properties have made increasing forest cover across the landscape extremely difficult because landowners view forested lands as worthless and untouchable. Thus, innovative productive systems are needed that not only restore diverse and resilient ecosystems, but also generate income for the farmer. The successful implementation of such systems across 50 small-scale farms in the region Lacerda et al.
As in many other regions, small-scale farmers are often left out of decision-making processes and policy development related to production FAO As such, CEDErva was developed to support continued research and outreach activities that empower small-scale erva-mate farmers and facilitate collaborative and sustainable approaches to forest management. The prevalent tensions between government agencies and erveiros has compelled members of the CSO to begin discussing the current tensions between conservation, agricultural expansion, and traditional agroforestry systems across policy and institutional circles, leading to some interesting developments that show promise for the future.
At the 5th Symposium on Traditional Erva-mate Production, held in December , we organized a round-table discussion focused precisely on the management of forest ecosystems in the context of agroforestry and the inherent contradictions in current policy and practice. Although the conversation was only just beginning, one of our roles as research partners and advocates is to facilitate these discussions to ensure that the voices of the erveiros are heard and that their lived experience is recognized as a valid input.
The aims of this council are many and include not only supporting the continuation of these systems, but also the creation of cooperative and solidarity efforts to gain greater control over the production chain. One of the key concerns for erveiros is the lack of recognition by industry of the differential quality of their product. Although some erveiros participate in organic certification systems, gaining certification is often prohibitively expensive with little return for the farmer because the industries that process the erva-mate pay only a slight premium for organic certified products.
Meanwhile, programs such as Fair Trade also require industry involvement, which considering the historic distrust between erveiros and ervateiros, has been minimal and fraught with suspicion. Further, our research team is developing and testing community-based sustainability indicators that will help to define participatory certification of these traditional systems and provide guidelines on implementation and improving sustainable production. These efforts aim to increase the control farmers have over price, supply chain, processing, marketing, and end products, which in turn brings greater economic stability and increased recognition of the social-ecological value of these systems Fig. This project highlights the real value that traditional erva-mate production practices have in terms of culture and sustainability because they foster the continuation of intangible heritage, while also supporting the maintenance of natural forest ecosystems.
The discussions and narratives produced provide a deep understanding of the cultural, social, and economic values associated with forests, all of which will be the subject of more in depth, future analysis. From this perspective, we are helping to foster a more attractive environment for young people, who can envision a future with possibilities for innovation and renewal, and thus maintain and develop these traditional production systems. The authors are sincerely grateful to the farmers and their families who have shared their stories with us. The data that support the findings of this study are available on request from the corresponding author, ERN.
The oral history interview transcripts will be made openly available on completion of the project at cederva. Abramovay, R. Agricultura familiar e desenvolvimento territorial. Alves, J. Rocha, W. Souto, S. Torquato, and R. Arce-Nazario, J. Landscape images in Amazonian narrative: the role of oral history in environmental research. Conservation and Society 5 1 Berkes, F. Colding, and C. Rediscovery of traditional ecological knowledge as adaptive management. Ecological Applications Blay-Palmer, A.
Landman, I. Knezevic, and R. Sonnino, and J. A food politics of the possible? Growing sustainable food systems through networks of knowledge. Agriculture and Human Values 33 1 Bombardi, L. Carneiro, F. Rigotto, K. Friedrich, and A. Carneiro, M. Multifuncionalidade da agricultura familiar. Pages in F. Botelho Filho, editor. Castella, P. Chaimsohn, F. Yerba mate contains polyphenols such as flavonoids and phenolic acids, which work by inhibiting enzymes like pancreatic lipase  and lipoprotein lipase , which in turn play a role in fat metabolism.
Yerba mate has been shown to increase satiety by slowing gastric emptying. Despite yerba mate's potential for reducing body weight, there is minimal data on the effects of yerba mate on body weight in humans. The consumption of hot mate tea is associated with oral cancer ,  esophageal cancer ,  cancer of the larynx ,  and squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. This was found with chronic ingestion 15 days of an aqueous mate extract, and may lead to a novel mechanism for manipulation of vascular regenerative factors, i. In an investigation of mate antioxidant activity, there was a correlation found between content of caffeoyl -derivatives and antioxidant capacity AOC.
A monoamine oxidase inhibitor is a type of antidepressant, so there is some data to suggest that yerba mate has a calming effect in this regard. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Species of plant. Some of this article's listed sources may not be reliable. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. December Learn how and when to remove this template message. Conservation status. Main article: History of yerba mate. Main article: Mate beverage. Oxford English Dictionary Online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or participating institution membership required. Lexico UK Dictionary. Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Random House.
A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. See more conditions. Request Appointment. Healthy Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating. Products and services. Free E-newsletter Subscribe to Housecall Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics. Sign up now. A friend suggested that I try yerba mate tea to boost my energy.
What is yerba mate? Answer From Katherine Zeratsky, R. With Katherine Zeratsky, R. Show references Yerba mate. Natural Medicines. Accessed Jan. Drinking coffee, mate, and very hot beverages. International Agency for Research on Cancer; Lopes AB, et al. Urinary concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in mate drinkers in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.As a past La Mate Foods Case Study myself it is safe to say that Analysis Of Sinners In The Hands Of An Angry God current generation La Mate Foods Case Study workers do not hold such values in their hearts. Methods We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies, published before La Mate Foods Case Study 1,with La Mate Foods Case Study aim to estimate La Mate Foods Case Study association between hot beverage and food consumption and EC La Mate Foods Case Study. Fiedler H.