⒈ Hydrochloric Acid Research Paper

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Hydrochloric Acid Research Paper



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Others, such as nitrogen-fixing legumes , benefit from symbiotic relationships with rhizobia that create ammonia from atmospheric nitrogen. In certain organisms, ammonia is produced from atmospheric nitrogen by enzymes called nitrogenases. The overall process is called nitrogen fixation. Intense effort has been directed toward understanding the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation; the scientific interest in this problem is motivated by the unusual structure of the active site of the enzyme, which consists of an Fe 7 MoS 9 ensemble. Ammonia is also a metabolic product of amino acid deamination catalyzed by enzymes such as glutamate dehydrogenase 1.

Ammonia excretion is common in aquatic animals. In humans, it is quickly converted to urea , which is much less toxic, particularly less basic. This urea is a major component of the dry weight of urine. Most reptiles, birds, insects, and snails excrete uric acid solely as nitrogenous waste. Ammonia also plays a role in both normal and abnormal animal physiology. It is biosynthesised through normal amino acid metabolism and is toxic in high concentrations. The liver converts ammonia to urea through a series of reactions known as the urea cycle. Liver dysfunction, such as that seen in cirrhosis , may lead to elevated amounts of ammonia in the blood hyperammonemia.

Likewise, defects in the enzymes responsible for the urea cycle, such as ornithine transcarbamylase , lead to hyperammonemia. Hyperammonemia contributes to the confusion and coma of hepatic encephalopathy , as well as the neurologic disease common in people with urea cycle defects and organic acidurias. Ammonium is excreted in the urine, resulting in net acid loss. Ammonia may itself diffuse across the renal tubules, combine with a hydrogen ion, and thus allow for further acid excretion. Ammonium ions are a toxic waste product of metabolism in animals. In fish and aquatic invertebrates, it is excreted directly into the water. In mammals, sharks, and amphibians, it is converted in the urea cycle to urea , because it is less toxic and can be stored more efficiently.

In birds, reptiles, and terrestrial snails, metabolic ammonium is converted into uric acid , which is solid, and can therefore be excreted with minimal water loss. Ammonia has been detected in the atmospheres of the giant planets , including Jupiter , along with other gases like methane, hydrogen, and helium. The interior of Saturn may include frozen crystals of ammonia.

Ammonia was first detected in interstellar space in , based on microwave emissions from the direction of the galactic core. The sensitivity of the molecule to a broad range of excitations and the ease with which it can be observed in a number of regions has made ammonia one of the most important molecules for studies of molecular clouds. The detection of triply deuterated ammonia was considered a surprise as deuterium is relatively scarce. It is thought that the low-temperature conditions allow this molecule to survive and accumulate. Since its interstellar discovery, NH 3 has proved to be an invaluable spectroscopic tool in the study of the interstellar medium. With a large number of transitions sensitive to a wide range of excitation conditions, NH 3 has been widely astronomically detected — its detection has been reported in hundreds of journal articles.

Listed below is a sample of journal articles that highlights the range of detectors that have been used to identify ammonia. The study of interstellar ammonia has been important to a number of areas of research in the last few decades. Some of these are delineated below and primarily involve using ammonia as an interstellar thermometer. The interstellar abundance for ammonia has been measured for a variety of environments. The rate constant, k , of this reaction depends on the temperature of the environment, with a value of 5. All other proposed formation reactions have rate constants of between 2 and 13 orders of magnitude smaller, making their contribution to the abundance of ammonia relatively insignificant.

There are total proposed reactions leading to the destruction of NH 3. Of these, 39 were tabulated in extensive tables of the chemistry among C, N, and O compounds. The above equations 1 , 2 run at a rate of 8. Radio observations of NH 3 from the Effelsberg m Radio Telescope reveal that the ammonia line is separated into two components — a background ridge and an unresolved core. The background corresponds well with the locations previously detected CO. A comparison of emission line widths indicates that turbulent or systematic velocities do not increase in the central cores of molecular clouds.

Microwave radiation from ammonia was observed in several galactic objects including W3 OH , Orion A , W43, W51, and five sources in the galactic centre. The high detection rate indicates that this is a common molecule in the interstellar medium and that high-density regions are common in the galaxy. VLA observations of NH 3 in seven regions with high-velocity gaseous outflows revealed condensations of less than 0. Three individual condensations were detected in Cepheus A, one of them with a highly elongated shape. They may play an important role in creating the bipolar outflow in the region. The hot gas has temperatures above 70 K, which was inferred from ammonia line ratios and appears to be closely associated with the innermost portions of the nuclear bar seen in CO.

Based upon temperature and density diagnostics, it is concluded that in general such clumps are probably the sites of massive star formation in an early evolutionary phase prior to the development of an ultracompact HII region. Absorption at 2. This detection helped explain the physical shape of previously poorly understood and related ice absorption lines. Analysis of the spectrum provides information on global mean properties of ammonia gas and an ammonia ice haze. In general, the cores are not spherically shaped, with aspect ratios ranging from 1.

It is also found that cores with stars have broader lines than cores without stars. Ammonia has been detected in the Draco Nebula and in one or possibly two molecular clouds, which are associated with the high-latitude galactic infrared cirrus. The finding is significant because they may represent the birthplaces for the Population I metallicity B-type stars in the galactic halo that could have been borne in the galactic disk. By balancing and stimulated emission with spontaneous emission, it is possible to construct a relation between excitation temperature and density. Moreover, since the transitional levels of ammonia can be approximated by a 2-level system at low temperatures, this calculation is fairly simple.

This premise can be applied to dark clouds, regions suspected of having extremely low temperatures and possible sites for future star formation. Detections of ammonia in dark clouds show very narrow lines — indicative not only of low temperatures, but also of a low level of inner-cloud turbulence. Line ratio calculations provide a measurement of cloud temperature that is independent of previous CO observations.

Mapping of NH 3 gives typical clouds sizes of 0. These cold, dense cores are the sites of future star formation. Ultra-compact HII regions are among the best tracers of high-mass star formation. Since a complete study of massive star formation necessarily involves the cloud from which the star formed, ammonia is an invaluable tool in understanding this surrounding molecular material. Doppler-shifted velocity components allow for the separation of distinct regions of molecular gas that can trace outflows and hot cores originating from forming stars.

Ammonia has been detected in external galaxies, [] [] and by simultaneously measuring several lines, it is possible to directly measure the gas temperature in these galaxies. This picture is consistent with the picture within our Milky Way galaxy — hot dense molecular cores form around newly forming stars embedded in larger clouds of molecular material on the scale of several hundred pc giant molecular clouds; GMCs. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ammonia disambiguation. Chemical compound of nitrogen and hydrogen. Ammonia [1]. Hydrogen nitride R refrigerant R refrigerant alternative spelling.

CAS Number. Interactive image. Beilstein Reference. Gmelin Reference. D Y. PubChem CID. Chemical formula. Solubility in water. Refractive index n D. Point group. Molecular shape. Dipole moment. Std molar entropy S o GHS hazard statements. GHS precautionary statements. Autoignition temperature. LD 50 median dose. LC 50 median concentration. LC Lo lowest published. PEL Permissible. REL Recommended. IDLH Immediate danger. Other cations. Structure and properties. Spectral data. Chemical compound. Main article: Metal ammine complex.

This section is about detection in the laboratory. Main article: Ammonia solution. See also: Ammonia fuming. Corrosive C Dangerous for the environment N. This section is about industrial synthesis. See also: Ammonia production. Main article: Haber—Bosch process. See also: Inorganic nonaqueous solvent. See also: Solvated electron. See also: Redox. Main article: Excretion.

As of , the global production of ammonia produced from natural gas using the steam reforming process was 72 percent. Other possibilities include biological hydrogen production or photolysis , but at present, steam reforming of natural gas is the most economical means of mass-producing hydrogen. Retrieved 3 March Systematic Inorganic Chemistry. ISBN Radiation Effects and Defects in Solids. The Review of Physical Chemistry of Japan. Chemical Principles 6th Ed. Houghton Mifflin Company. Retrieved on 20 July Our World in Data.

Retrieved 4 September Government Printing Office. Archived from the original PDF on 25 February Retrieved 29 October Retrieved 12 February Norris Shreve ; Joseph Brink Chemical Process Industries 4th ed. See also Gas carrier and Bottled gas. Archived from the original PDF on 27 November New York: Dover Publications. The Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine. ISSN PMID Part 1 of The Thermodynamics of Absorption Refrigeration. Lehigh University studies. Acta Crystallographica Section A. Bibcode : AcCrA.. CRC Press. Wave-Length and the Absorption Spectrum of Ammonia".

Physical Review. Bibcode : PhRv Kunkuma A. Proceedings of the Combustion Institute. Flammability limits of ammonia-air mixtures. OSTI Northrop Space Labs. Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 24 December Journal of Chemical Education. The plots shown in this paper used older parameters. Irving Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Martinez; Lowe, C. Pausanias with W. Jones, trans. Riley, ed. Bohn, , vol. Retrieved 7 July See: Pliny with W. From pp. Sincerum enim statim resolvitur, adulteratum calce pungit et asperum [or aspersum ] reddit odorem vehementer. Bliss, , vol. New York, New York: G. Leiden, Netherlands: E. Brill, , pp. Moeller, Walter O. Brill, , p. Faber, G.

Bond, Sarah E. Witty speculates that the Romans obtained ammonia in concentrated form by adding wood ash impure potassium carbonate to urine that had been fermented for several hours. Struvite magnesium ammonium phosphate is thereby precipitated, and the yield of struvite can be increased by then treating the solution with bittern , a magnesium-rich solution that is a byproduct of making salt from sea water. Roasting struvite releases ammonia vapors. Basilii Valentini From p. Now take clean nice Armenian salt, without sublimating all [of it]; put it in a [distillation] flask; pour oil of tartar [i.

Crosland Historical Studies in the Language of Chemistry. Courier Dover Publications. Experiments upon magnesia alba, quick-lime, and other alcaline substances. Edinburgh: W. Cambridge University Press. Grade Levels. Physical Science. Earth and Environmental Science. Behavioral and Social Science. What does it mean for a solution to be acidic or basic alkaline? The pH Scale: Some Examples. Figure 1. For example, the fermenting of foods. Short range pH test paper 6. For example, a range suitable for aquatic organisms. Micro range pH test paper 5.

We recommend checking if there is one available at your local high school chemistry laboratory before purchasing. Various models are available from Amazon. Suitable for more advanced research where the exact pH of a solution matters. For example, when creating buffers for a biotechnology project. Table 2. The items above can be used to measure pH for science projects and other hobby and home applications. Clicking the purchasing links will take you directly to the product at www. Bibliography For more information about acids, bases, and the pH scale, try this reference: Khan Academy. Arrhenius acids and bases. Retrieved July 15, In acid-base chemical reactions, there are four main variables, which influence the rate of reaction.

These include the presence or absence of catalyst, temperature, concentration, and surface area of reactants. Temperature influences the rates of reaction through kinetic energy, such that high temperatures increase the kinetic energy of reacting molecules therefore causing frequent collisions, which form products faster. High concentrations imply that more reacting molecules are at high proximity to each other therefore intermolecular collisions are frequent therefore forming products frequently. Reactants with high surface area provide a greater binding surface for other reacting molecules, and therefore increase the number of successful collisions at any moment. To measure, the effect of each of above factors, one has to hold some factors constant during rate reaction experimentation.

Therefore, this study intends to investigate the effect of concentration and surface area of reactants on the rate of chemical reactions. Magnesium metal in form of a ribbon or powder reacts with acids rapidly than water liberating hydrogen gas. For stance, magnesium metal reacts with hydrochloric to form magnesium chloride salt while displacing hydrogen from the acid as hydrogen gas. The aim of this experiment is to verify the effects of surface area of solid reactants and concentration of aqueous reactants on the rates of acid-base chemical reactions. Therefore, we sought to test the duration of reaction of equal lengths Magnesium ribbons with reducing concentrations of hydrochloric acid.

Similarly, the duration of reaction will be determined using equivalent weights of powdered Magnesium metal. The experiment will be carried at a room temperature 25 0C. For the Magnesium ribbon, the lengths of the Magnesium ribbon used will be constant, while quantities of powdered Magnesium metal in grams will be equivalent to the weight of the length of magnesium ribbon used. The experiment will be carried out at room temperature 25 0C.

Table 1 A table of study variables and operationalization of the study variables Prediction Given that, powdered Magnesium metal has a high surface area than equivalent lengths of Magnesium ribbon, we predict that the former will have shorter duration of reaction with hydrochloric acid than the latter. We also predict that reaction of powdered Magnesium metal with highest concentration of hydrochloric acid will take the shortest duration of reaction. Hypothesis: Powdered Magnesium metal will reduce the reaction duration by a half if used in place of equivalent length of magnesium ribbon, when reacted with hydrochloric acid.

Chemicals and Reagents The following chemicals and reagents were required in the experimentation:.

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