① The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible
The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible concise narrative present in each of the fifteen stories work The Negative Effects Of Mass Incarceration provide the readership with an The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible personal point of view that emphasises the emotions and mindset of the protagonist, The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible the sense of authorial empathy and compassion. In Act 1 he jumped on board The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible the hysteria to preserve his The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible, but he ended up losing what little authority he had The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible the first place and, according to Miller's afterward, was voted out of office soon The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible the The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible of The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible play. The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible one even considers Mary's statement about sticking the needle in herself. The takeaway message for this video will be to utilise minor characters here and there to The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible your argument. Here are some discussion questions to consider after The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible about the Battle Of Fromelles Essay role of the concepts of power and authority in the events of the play:. Everyone, regardless of their time, will gobble up the story. The culture of the s could hardly be more different to what it is today. Danforth soon thereafter takes utter control of the situation, and denies others in the The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible even a modicum of power. Elbow is a silly policeman who speaks The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible malapropisms using a similar but incorrect word for humorous effect.
Plot Summary of The Crucible by Arthur Miller in Under 10 Minutes
The Duke makes a grand return to Vienna, saying he will hear any complaints immediately. Isabella tells her story, and the Duke feigns disbelief, despite having orchestrated the plan himself. In an act filled with more twists and turns than a Marvel movie, everything comes out; the Duke reveals he was a friar all along, Angelo is forced to confess, and Claudio is pardoned amongst other things. To top it all off, the Duke proposes to Isabella. This may help give insight into why the author has included or not included some aspect of their work. This holy mandate states that a monarch derives his right to rule from the will of God and is not subject to earthly authority.
Hence, alongside The Divine Right of Kings, this ideal gave monarchs huge power over their subjects. In early s England, there was a defined social hierarchy and class system. Everyone had a place in the hierarchy, and there was little movement between the classes. Within each class, men were considered superior to women. Shakespeare encourages us to ask a few questions of our supposedly holy leader and his actions. However, the Duke is pretty shady when he plots his bed-trick plan with Isabella and Mariana. Is this deceptive behavior still holy? Furthermore, is it not sacrilege to pretend to be a holy friar when one is not truly a holy man? Moreover, when the Duke assigns Angelo as his deputy, would this transform Angelo into a divine ruler too? Could he be divine, considering his cruel rule and despicable request to Isabella?
Women were considered subservient, lower class citizens then men. Alliances were forged between powerful families through arranged marriages of daughters. These girls may have received an education through tutors attending their homes there were no schools for girls , but their endgame would be marriage, children and maintaining the home. Women and girls of a lower class did not receive any formal education but would have learned how to govern a household and become skilled in all housewifely duties.
Impoverished and desperate women Mistress Overdone would turn to prostitution to stay alive. Shakespeare perhaps highlights the struggle of women in his female characters; Isabella, Mistress Overdone, Juliet, and Kate Keepdown. A year earlier came the end of the 45 year long Elizabethan era and began the Jacobean era under the rule of King James. Since the late Queen Elizabeth had no direct heirs, King James of Scotland a relative took to the throne. Little was known by the English people of this foreign king. The playwright characterizes the Duke as loving his people, but not enjoying being before their eyes and in the spotlight; much like King James, a quiet ruler who relished studying privately in his great library.
The rich gentry paid 2 pennies for seating in the galleries, often using cushions. The really rich nobles could watch the play from a chair set on the side of the stage itself. Playhouses in Shakespeare's time were often close to brothels, both in terms of their physical locations in the suburbs and the way they were viewed by some of polite society. Talking about authorial intent in your analytical essay leads to a more in-depth analysis. Think of it as an opportunity to make your very own soup! Add some themes, stir in character analysis, sprinkle in some quotes and serve with historical context and authorial intent.
Just try not to overcook it, like I have done with this soup metaphor. Grab a snack, a drink, and enjoy this tasty Shakespeare meme. Are you ready for part 2 of the Shakespeare train? As you can see, the themes are interconnected. Do you like the diagram? Made it myself : Why does this matter? Keep in mind that depending which pieces of evidence you look at, the Bard could be saying something different.
The beauty of Shakespeare is that much is open to interpretation. You can interpret characters and ideas in so many different ways! The Duke is the leader of Vienna, ordained by God. He hands this power to his deputy Angelo, who misuses it in his request of Isabella. Now consider Isabella - she has power too, but a different kind… Also consider characters who have little to no power - Mistress Overdone, Pompey etc. Perhaps Shakespeare is suggesting that power is a dangerous weapon and that in the wrong hands, it could be deadly. This is an interesting theme. What defines sin?
Bit of a pickle that one. So many of the characters take part in questionable deeds. Was it immoral for the Duke to pretend to be a holy friar? Deep stuff man. Perhaps Shakespeare tries to tell us that there is a fine line between something moral and something sinful. Everyone from the almighty Duke to a lowly prostitute has committed potentially immoral acts. Perhaps audiences are encouraged to be more understanding of others, and their reasons for these deeds.
Mmm, this theme ties in nicely with just about all of the others. How does one define justice? The play explores this idea; does justice mean punishment? Or mercy? Characters that dispense justice include The Duke, Angelo although they have differing ideas of justice and Isabella. Since Vienna is a religious place, consider the divine justice system ie. Laws exist in an attempt to ensure justice. But does it always work? Perhaps Shakespeare says that since we humans are inevitably flawed, that any justice system created by us will too be imperfect.
Who are we to decide the fates of our fellow man? Furthermore, the Bard may be encouraging us to be kind when dispensing justice, leaning more to mercy than punishment. Who run the world? The exploration of the female characters in this play are very interesting, and kind of sad. Of 20 named characters, only 5 are women. There is a lot to unpack here.
Their situations: a maiden poised to enter a nunnery, a prostitute, a pregnant girl about to lose her husband, a nun, and another prostitute. Quite gloomy, isn't it? Over the course of the play, our female characters are put into worse situations by men. Their experiences are dictated by men. Perhaps Shakespeare suggests that women are treated unfairly in society. The Bard potentially says that such sexual and gender politics do not create a cohesive and just society. This theme, again, connects to many others. It can link to all groups of people The wealthy, the poor, women, criminals etc. Most of the mercy is dispensed at the end of the play when the Duke does his grand reveal. Characters who choose to mete out mercy over punishment include The Duke and Isabella.
We might think this is harsh, but it a legal and lawful decision. Perhaps Shakespeare encourages us to look at mercy and punishment from different perspectives. Angelo believes he is punishing Claudio for his own good, and cleaning up Vienna of lechery too. Maybe we ought to be merciful in our opinion of the deputy. Nonetheless, the Bard shows that in the case of young Claudio, mercy and forgiveness is the right path to choose.
Finally, consider why Shakespeare may have portrayed a merciful leader to his Jacobean audience. Maybe if he were to portray a leader as fair and merciful, the Jacobean audience would trust that their new king a man similar in character to the Duke could be kind and merciful too. Earning the favour of the king and writing a killer play? He wants to save his own ass, fearing Claudio will seek vengeance. The Duke is flawed too. Then he plans to swoop in and look like a hero.
Kinda dodgy. Consider Claudio and Juliet too. They, like Angelo, succumbed to lust and slept together before they were officially married. Are the poor frail in a different way? In that way she is virtuous. However, she sells her body to survive. Perhaps she is not prone to desire like Angelo, but serves another desire - a desire to survive? Perhaps Shakespeare suggests that no one is truly perfect, not even a leader supposedly ordained by God, a law-abiding deputy, or a maiden who is poised to enter a nunnery. Yet while Angelo is overcome by his lust and emotion, the Duke and Isabella attempt to better themselves by showing mercy and temperance. So, society in Vienna is very much religious. Their beliefs dictate actions and laws within the city.
Some very religious characters include Isabella and Angelo. However, our novice nun, who is obsessed with virtue and chastity, agrees to and takes part in the bed-trick, a deception that is not particularly Christian. Even The Duke, supposedly semi-divine, makes some dubious choices. He spends most of the play posed as a holy man, even though he is not. He plans the bed-trick to deceive Angelo and lets poor Isabella think her poor brother is dead, instead of saving her so much pain. The question of how much we should let religion dictate us is another reason this piece is a problem play.
Perhaps Shakespeare criticises religious extremism in his portrayal of characters like Isabella and Angelo. Or maybe he just wants us to remain open-minded about ideas and our spirituality. Yikes, there are so many themes in this play! Each character can be viewed in different lights, even more so than themes can be. Here are the characters, in order of how much they speak in the play. Who would you swipe right on?
Hint: not Lucio. These are people, objects, words etc that represent a theme or idea. The idea of heavenly justice vs earthly justice is prominent throughout the text. Is he harsh and equalising? Is he just and sympathetic? These ideals teach that the person who committed a misdeed shall have the same misdeed done unto them. Do not judge, and you will not be judged. Do not condemn, and you will not be condemned.
Forgive, and you will be forgiven. So, when sentencing Angelo the Duke employs the words of the Old Testament. Wait, who? Well, in Act 4, Scene 4 Line , Lucio says something very intriguing. We can think of Lucio as representing all the sins and misdeeds in Vienna - lechery, immorality, lack of justice, selfishness etc. Hence, Lucio is saying that these shortcomings and flaws will always be present to people and in Vienna, sticking to the city like a nasty burr.
The metre of the verse ie. This means that each line is divided into 5 feet. Within each foot, there is one unstressed syllable followed by a stressed one. Verse does not have to rhyme, as the above lines do. Shakespeare often employs a rhyming couplet to close a scene and add some drama. Verse is usually reserved for the higher class citizens, with those who are less fortunate speaking in prose. Certain characters, such as Lucio, switch between verse and prose depending on who they are speaking to. Escalus is the ever reasonable and loyal lord and close confidant of the Duke.
His name gives connotations of scales and balance - characteristic of the rational man. If we judge him only by his name, he should be a pure and heavenly being. We can see that appearance is very different from reality. There is so much to unpack about this douchebag. Let us briefly consider 2 ideas. Maybe this obsession leads to his immorality and poor leadership. He weaves his way around the request, propositioning Isabella so indirectly that at first, she does not even seem to understand his request! Or maybe this scene is yet more evidence of a patriarchal society, with the men knowing very well the power they hold. We never actually meet this fellow. Fascinatingly, Ragozine is the only person who dies in the entire play. ALSO, he dies of natural causes. It feels like the play is full of death, grief and many heads on the chopping block.
But curiously, there is only one death, of a minor character, of natural causes. Perhaps this says something about fate and justice or offers some commentary on life and hope. Elbow is a silly policeman who speaks in malapropisms using a similar but incorrect word for humorous effect. Pompey is a clever pimp who seems to have a deep understanding of justice and the Viennese people. The comparison of these characters, fortunate and dumb to unfortunate and clever, perhaps serves to show that the law is not always apt and that sometimes those who break the law are more clever than it. Mistress Overdone is a pitiable prostitute. Furthermore, this happens in Act 3 of 5, around halfway through the play! The audience never hears from Mistress Overdone again, and her future is left uncertain.
Even Barnadine, a convicted murderer, is given freedom and a happy ending. What is Shakespeare saying by portraying Mistress Overdone and other women in such a way? This blog post is by no means an exhaustive list of all its quirks and complexities. You are very lucky to be studying a text with such universal themes and ideas that you can carry with you even after high school. But…the minute you sit down at your desk, you find that your mind goes completely blank and that you are left only with one dreadful question: What now? If this sounds all too familiar to you, you are definitely not alone. So, here is a quick guide that can help you to plan out your year, to break free from procrastination and to find some sparks of motivation when you feel like there is simply no road ahead.
This may seem like the most obvious step, but it can make all the difference when done thoughtfully and thoroughly. One thing that VCAA English examiners always look for when reading text responses is in-depth knowledge and understanding of the text, and the best way to develop and gain this knowledge is to read, read, and read again! Try to treat your text like a blank map, full of unexplored territories and winding roads that are there for you to uncover each time you read the text. When you read your text for the first time, look out for the major roads and landmarks; the setting and premise, the plot, the characters, the broad ideas, the authorial voice and style etc.
While reading and rereading your text will definitely help you to know your text in and out, in order to fully tick the box of knowledge and understanding, it is also important to read around the text; to understand the context of when and why the text was written, for whom it was written, and the impact the text has had on both its original audience and its audience today. Especially for texts that are rooted in history, like The Women of Troy or Rear Window , understanding context and background information is essential in understanding the text itself.
Each text is a product of both its creator and its time, so make the effort to research the writer, playwright or filmmaker , and the historical, cultural, social and political context of your text. Studying a subject with as large of a cohort as VCE English can oftentimes mean that ideas are recycled and exams are repetitive, so in order to distinguish yourself from the pack, try to look for ways to craft your own original path ; a view of the text that is distinctly your own, instead of following others. The best way to do this is to do a bit of thinking at home; to create your own original set of notes and observations and to spend time analysing each section of your text in greater detail than you may have done in class.
Constructing a notes table like the one below can help you greatly in sorting and fleshing out your ideas, and, when done consistently throughout the year, can save a lot of time and effort when it comes to studying for the exam! You may be feeling nervous at this point, even a little burnt out, but there is no need to worry. Demonstrates the dehumanisation of the Trojan women, and the heinous, beastly actions of the Greek men, who, like their 'war machine' description, have subverted all that is natural to become violent, and all that is beautiful to become grotesque.
Rather than slaving away for hours and hours writing full essays, these simpler forms of targeted study can and will save you the burnout and will get you feeling confident faster. Only move on to writing a full practice essay or some practice paragraphs once you feel you have a good in-depth understanding of how to plan an essay and once you have already naturally memorised some important quotes that you can use in your essay learn how to embed your quotes like a boss here. Remember, quality over quantity, so spend your time before your SAC revising thoughtfully and carefully, targeting your revision, and taking things slowly, rather than robotically churning out essay after essay.
Preparing for it is also much less intense than you might think it to be, because essentially, from the very first time you read your text, you will have already begun preparing for the exam. All that is left to do before the English exam is to polish up on some of your weaknesses identified in your SACs, to look over all the notes and information you have gathered throughout the year, to freshen up on essay writing and essay planning , and to do a couple of practices, so that you can feel as ready as you can for the real thing.
In particular, I found that in the leadup to my English exam, studying with my friends and peers was not only a welcome stress reliever, but a really good way to expand my own knowledge by helping others and being helped myself. Hopefully, these tips will be able to help you out throughout the year in staying motivated and feeling okay about English! Remember, this is just here as a guide to help you, and not a strict regimen to follow, because everyone studies differently, and has different goals in English.
Our Ultimate Guide to Text Response and Ultimate Guide to Comparative give you a full rundown of what is required in these two areas of study where you will have to learn specific texts so I would highly recommend having a read! The Crucible is a four-act play that portrays the atmosphere of the witch trials in Salem. As an allegory of McCarthyism, the play primarily focuses on criticising the ways in which innocent people are prosecuted without any founded evidence, reflecting the unjust nature of the corrupted authoritarian system that governs Salem. People start scapegoating others to escape prosecution and falsely accuse others to gain power and land, facilitating mass hysteria which ultimately leads to the downfall of the Salem theocracy.
The protagonist John Proctor is one of those that decides to defy the courts and sacrifices his life towards the end of the play, ending the play on a quiet note in contrast with its frenzied conflict throughout the acts. The Dressmaker shows the audience the treatment towards Tilly Dunnage upon her return to fictional town Dungatar years after she was wrongly accused of being a murderess. Rosalie Ham critiques the impacts of rumours on Tilly and Molly, also establishing her condemnation of the societal stigma of this isolated town.
Tilly starts making haute couture outfits to transform the lives of the women in the town and help them present themselves as more desirable and elevate their ranks. However, the townspeople still see Tilly negatively, except for some individuals who are able to look past the opinions of others and get to know Tilly themselves. Both The Crucible and The Dressmaker talk extensively about class. Ultimately, both The Crucible and The Dressmaker are set in classist societies where there is no opportunity for social advancement. As such, for both Salem and Dungatar, the very idea that anyone could move between the classes and make a better life for themselves is inherently dangerous. What we can see here is that class shapes the way communities deal with crisis.
Anything that overturns class is dangerous because it challenges the social order — meaning that individuals such as Reverend Parris in The Crucible , or Councillor Pettyman in The Dressmaker may lose all their power and authority. Having travelled the outside world, she represents a worldly mindset and breadth of experiences which the townspeople know they cannot match. Rather, the people do it themselves; putting people back in their place through rumour and suspicion. However, by creating extravagant, expensive dresses for the townspeople, Tilly inadvertently provides people with another way to express class. The setting forms an essential thematic element of The Crucible and The Dressmaker. For Salem, its citizens adopt a mindset of religious and cultural superiority — believing that their faith, dedication to hard work and unity under God make them the most blessed people in the world.
Individuals as diverse as Rebecca Nurse and Thomas Putnam perceive Salem to be a genuinely incredible place. Not much of the same can be said for The Dressmaker. The next part of the name is 'tar', a sticky substance, creating the impression that Dungatar's people are stuck in their disgusting ways. The townspeople of Dungatar are acutely aware of their own inadequacy, and that is why they fight so hard to remain isolated from the outside world.
Tilly is therefore a threat because she challenges their isolation and forces the men and women of Dungatar to reconsider why their community has shunned progress for so long. In short, she makes a once-isolated people realise that fear, paranoia, division and superstition are no way to run a town, and brings them to acknowledge the terribly harmful impacts of their own hatred. On top of that, because Salem is literally the only Christian, European settlement for miles, it is simply impossible for them to even think about alternatives to their way of life.
The township is isolated, but unlike Salem, it at least has contact with the outside world. All Tilly does, therefore, is show the people of Dungatar an alternative to their way of life. But, for a community used to the way they have lived for decades, it ultimately contributes to its destruction. The following essay topic breakdown was written by Lindsey Dang. Before writing our topic sentences, we need to look at our key words first. The keywords in this prompt are outcasts and treated. So, who are considered outcasts in the two texts? Outcasts can be those of traditionally lower classes, they can be characters with physical flaws, those that are different to others or those who do not abide by the standards of their respective societies.
How would we describe the treatment towards these characters? Are they treated nicely or are they mistreated and discriminated against? Do ALL members of that community have that same treatment towards those outcasts or are there exceptions? Remember this point because we might be able to use this to challenge the prompt. Explore how communities respond to crisis. People must conform to societal expectations in The Crucible and The Dressmaker. Gender repression is rife in both The Crucible and The Dressmaker.
Ah, language analysis. No longer are we searching for hidden meanings within the text, instead we search for blatant appeals to emotions and values which our daring author uses to persuade us to stand in solidarity with their view. My, how times change. Typical VCAA. We all know how tough it can be without the right kind of instruction, so worry not, everything you need will be explained for you shortly. Now, before you get too deep into this step - and I know how eager you must be to dive into that juicy analysis — you first need to decide on a structure.
In this particular case of Language Analysis, we are comparing two articles, meaning we have a couple of different structures to choose from. That is, we now need to decide whether we will be separating the analysis of each article into its own individual paragraph, or rather, integrating the analysis and drawing on similar ideas from each of the texts to compare them within one paragraph. Tough decisions, eh? While most examiners prefer integrated paragraphs, as it shows a higher level of understanding of the texts, sometimes the articles make implementing this structure a little difficult. For example, maybe one article focuses more on emotional appeals, while the other uses factual evidence such as statistics to persuade the reader.
What do we do then? If none of the arguments are similar, but we still want to use that amazing integration technique, what can we do? Well first of all, remember that we are comparing two articles. So what does this mean for us? We can still integrate our paragraphs, however, we will be focusing on how two contrasting techniques seek to achieve the same result of persuading the audience. That is, scouring through the articles for those various language devices the author has used to turn this article from an exposition to a persuasive text, and then deciding on how we shall be using this in our essay. Yes, I happened to be one of those students who never planned anything and preferred to jump straight into the introduction, hoping all my thoughts would fall into place along the way.
Allow me to let you in on a little secret: that was a notoriously bad idea. My essays always turned out as garbled, barely legible messes and I always managed to talk myself into circles. It is also crucial that you know what exactly should be going into the planning process. There are two main aspects of planning that you need to focus on for a Language Analysis essay: analysis and implementation. I know that might not make much sense right now, but allow me to explain:.
This includes reading through your articles and picking out all the pieces that seem like persuasive techniques. This part is the lengthiest and it may take you some time to fully understand all of the article. That is, deciding which arguments or language devices we will analyse in paragraph 1, paragraph 2 and so on. This part is largely up to you and the way in which you prefer to link various ideas. Below is an example of how you might choose to plan your introduction and body paragraph. It may seem a bit wordy, but this is the recommended thought process you should consider when mapping out your essay, as explained in the following sections of this blog post. With enough practice you may even be able to remember some of these elements in your head, rather than writing it out in detail during each SAC or exam it might be a little time consuming.
Note: Sentences in quotation marks '' represent where the information has been implemented in the actual introduction. Context : Detention of Asylum Seekers is currently a popular topic of discussion, 'issue regarding the treatment and management of asylum seekers'. Contention : Methods must be revaluated, 'better solution must be sought'. Audience : Regular readers, 'regular readers of the popular news publication site'. Purpose : Incite critical conversation, 'persuade readers to be similarly critical of the initiative'. Context: Detention of Asylum Seekers is currently a popular topic of discussion, 'issue regarding the treatment and management of asylum seekers'.
Contention: Detention of Asylum Seekers is wrong, 'detention as a whole is inhumane'. Audience: Those in favour of Asylum Seekers, 'supporters of his resource centre'. Purpose: Allow Asylum Seekers into the country, '[barring them from entering the country]…should be ceased immediately'. Example : 'harsh', 'brutal regime', 'needlessly cruel' to invoke discomfort. Example : Amnesty International, UN, etc. Example : Writes he 'cannot imagine the horrors', inviting readers to try too. Example : 'pain', 'suffering', 'deprivation of hope' to invoke sympathy. Example : Blames Australian Government for the 'suffering inflicted'. Having a top notch introduction not only sets the standard for the rest of your language analysis, but it gives you a chance to set yourself apart from the crowd.
Thus, having a punchy introduction is bound to catch their attention. In addition to having a solid beginning, there are a few other things you need to include in your intro, namely, CCTAP. Well, the nifty little acronym stands for C ontext, C ontention, T one, A udience and P urpose, which are the five key pieces of information you need to include about both of your articles within your introduction. In addition to all the various language devices we collected during planning, you will need to scan through the articles to find this information in order to give the reader of your essay the brief gist of your articles without ever having read them.
And now we reach the meat of your essay - the body paragraphs. A typical essay should have at least three of these, no less, although some people might feel the need to write four or five. While this may seem like a good idea to earn those extra marks, you should never feel pressured to do so if you already have three good paragraphs planned out. What your teachers and examiners are really looking for is a comprehensive understanding of the texts and the way in which you organise your ideas into paragraphs. Now, onto writing the actual paragraphs. Some of these you may have already heard of before and you might even have a preference as to which one you will use. But regardless of what you choose, it is important that you add all the correct elements, as leaving any of them out may cost you vital marks.
This step may involve analysing the image for what it is, or linking the imagery with an already existing argument within the article. Whatever you deduce it to mean, just make sure you slip it into one of the paragraphs in your essay. Here is an example of an integrated paragraph learn more about integrated vs. And some might argue it is in fact the easiest, because now all you need to do is summarise all of those body paragraphs into a concise little one.
Simple right? Under no circumstances should you be using your conclusion to add in any new information, so just make sure you give a brief description of your previous arguments and you should be good to go! And one more thing: never start your conclusions with 'In conclusion'. Good luck with your own essays! In year 9, I entered my first public speaking competition, and have been participating in such competitions ever since. I may not have won those, but it got me comfortable standing in front of people without shaking like someone with hypothermia. In fact, I've talked about a few of these in a 'Must Dos and Don'ts' video. If you haven't seen it yet, watch before you read on:.
Always remember that practice makes perfect. Practise as much as possible; in front of anyone and everyone including yourself use a mirror. Keep practising until you can recite it. As for cue cards, use dot points. But most importantly, if you mess up, keep going. Even if you screw up a word or suddenly forget your next point, just take a breath, correct yourself, and keep going. Do not giggle. Do not be monotone. Give it as much energy as it is appropriate for your speech. As you transition through various intense emotions such as anger, happiness and shock, your performance should reflect it.
This is achieved in both your tone and your body language moving around. Speak as if you believe in your contention — with passion. Remember, confidence is key. And also, speak so that the teacher can actually hear you. And it actually does make a huge difference. Think about real life — do you know anyone that stands completely and utterly still when talking to you? I usually just start off looking at the back wall… then as I go through the speech, I naturally turn from one back corner of the room to the other. Also, try not to look down.
Take some long, deep breaths and tell yourself that you can do it! Even though she made a couple mistakes in her speech, she kept going and captivated the attention of the UN. Take a look and be inspired!! What's next? Make sure you've got a great oral presentation topic. We've done all the hard work for you and compiled 20 of the best topics for Access it now! Not gonna lie, this novel is a bit of a tricky one to introduce. World War II, arguably one of the darkest events of human history, has been the basis of so much writing across so many genres; authors, academics, novelists have all devoted themselves to understanding the tragedies, and make sense of how we managed to do this to one another.
Many reflect on the experiences of children and families whose lives were torn apart by the war. In some ways, Doerr is another author who has attempted this. His novel alludes to the merciless anonymity of death in war, juxtaposes individualism with collective national mindlessness, and seeks out innocence amidst the brutality of war. What makes this novel difficult to introduce is the way in which Doerr has done this; through the eyes of two children on opposite sides of the war, he explores how both of them struggle with identity, morality and hope, each in their own way.
Their storylines converge in the bombing of Saint-Malo, demonstrating that war can be indiscriminate in its victims—that is, it does not care if its victims are children or adults, innocent or guilty, French or German. However, their interaction also speaks to the humanity that lies in all of us, no matter how deeply buried. Disclaimer: this is a very, very broad overview of the novel and it is absolutely not a substitute for actually reading it please actually read it. Chronologically, we start in , five years before the war.
As she starts to go blind, Daniel teaches her Braille, and makes her wooden models of their neighbourhood to help her navigate. Meanwhile, she befriends Etienne, who suffers from agoraphobia as a result of the trauma from the First World War. He is charming and very knowledgeable about science, having made a series of scientific radio broadcasts with his brother Henri who died in WWI. She also befriends his cook, Madame Manec, who participates in the resistance movement right up until she falls ill and dies. Her father is also arrested and would ultimately die in prison , and the loss of their loved ones prompts both Etienne and Marie-Laure to begin fighting back.
Marie-Laure is also given a key to a grotto by the seaside which is full of molluscs, her favourite kind of animal. On the other side of the war, Werner is, in , an 8 year-old German boy growing up in an orphanage with his sister Jutta in the small mining town of Zollverein. One day, he repairs the radio of a Nazi official, who recruits him to the Hitler Youth on account of his ingenuity and his very blonde hair and very blue eyes, considered to be desirable traits by the regime. Jutta grows increasingly distant from Werner during this time, as she questions the morality of the Nazis.
Werner is trained to be a soldier along with a cohort of other boys, and additionally learns to use radio to locate enemy soldiers. He befriends Frederick, an innocent kid who was only there because his parents were rich—Frederick would eventually fall victim to the brutality of the instructors, and Werner tries to quit out of solidarity. Unfortunately, he is sent into the army to apply his training to actual warfare.
He fights with Frank Volkheimer, a slightly ambiguous character who a tough and cruel soldier, but also displays a capacity to be kind and gentle including a fondness for classical music. The war eventually takes them to Saint-Malo. Also around or so, a Nazi sergeant, Reinhold von Rumpel, begins to track down the Sea of Flames. He would have been successful ultimately had it not been for Werner, who stops him in order to save Marie Laure. As America begins to turn the war around, Werner is arrested and dies after stepping on a German landmine; Marie-Laure and Etienne move back to Paris.
Marie-Laure eventually becomes a scientist specialising in the study of molluscs and has an extensive family of her own by What kind of questions does Doerr raise through this plot? To some degree, the single central question of the novel is one of humanity, and this manifests in a few different ways. Firstly, to what extent are we in control of our own choices? Do we truly have free will to behave morally? The Nazi regime throws a spanner in the works here, as it makes incredibly inhumane demands on its people. Perhaps they fear punishment and have no choice—Werner, for instance, does go along with everything. At the same time, his own sister manages to demonstrate critical thinking and moral reasoning well beyond her years, and it makes you wonder if there was potential for Werner to be better in this regard.
That being said, Werner is far from the only character who struggles with this—consider the perfumer, Claude Levitte, who becomes a Nazi informer, or even ordinary French citizens who simply accept the German takeover. Do they actually have free will to resist, or is it even moral for them to do so? This is what allowed people to do evil things without actually feeling or even being inherently evil—they were just taking orders, after all.
Consider the role of free will in this context. Etienne and Madame Manec, for instance, even disagree on the morality of resistance, which can frequently involve murder. At the same time, the climactic event of the novel is an allied bombing of Saint-Malo, a French town, just because it had become a German outpost. On a more optimistic note, a human quality that Doerr explores is our natural curiosity towards science. This is abundant in the childhoods of both protagonists, as Werner demonstrates dexterity with the radio at a very young age, and Marie-Laure a keen interest in marine biology. In particular, her blindness pushes her into avenues of science which she can experience without literal sight, such as the tactile sensations of mollusc shells. The title may hint at this—for all the light she cannot see, she seeks enlightenment through knowledge, which in turn gives her hope, optimism and purpose.
This alludes to the banality of evil again; by focusing on his very technical role and his unique understanding of the science behind radios, he is able to blind himself to the bigger picture of the evils he is abetting. Science is something that is so innately human, yet can also be used inhumanely as well. One major symbol is the radio , with its potential for good as well as for evil. On one hand, it is undoubtedly used for evil purposes, but it also acts as a source of hope, purpose, conviction and connection in the worst of times. It is what ultimately drives Werner to save Marie-Laure. Along the same vein, whelks are also a major symbol, particularly for Marie-Laure.
While an object of her fascination, they also represent strength for her, as they remain fixed onto rocks and withstand the beaks of birds who try to attack them. As Saint-Malo is destroyed and the Sea of Flames discarded, it is the seaside ecosystem that manages to live on, undisturbed. The power of mass hysteria is further revealed when Mary is unable to faint outside of a charged courtroom environment.
She believed she had seen spirits earlier because she was caught up in the delusions of those around her. Abigail distracts the judges from any rational investigation in this act by playing into this hysteria. Will you confess yourself with him? Danforth insists that John must know more about the Devil's dealings than he has revealed. Though Rebecca Nurse's involvement has already been corroborated by other confessors, Danforth demands to hear it from John to confirm that John is fully committed to renouncing his supposed ties to Satan.
Here are a few questions about hysteria to consider now that you've read a summary of how this theme was expressed throughout the plot of the play:. Even though there is significant reason to believe Abigail is lying about Elizabeth's familiar spirit stabbing her, the frenzied investigators ignore testimony that challenges their chosen witchy narrative. Concern for reputation is a theme that looms large over most of the events in The Crucible. Though actions are often motivated by fear and desires for power and revenge, they are also propped up by underlying worries about how a loss of reputation will negatively affect characters' lives.
Once there have been enough convictions, the reputations of the judges also become factors. They are extremely biased towards believing they have made the correct sentencing decisions in court thus far, so they are reluctant to accept new evidence that may prove them wrong. The importance placed on reputation helps perpetuate hysteria because it leads to inaction, inflexibility, and, in many cases, active sabotage of the reputations of others for selfish purposes. The overall message is that when a person's actions are driven by desires to preserve favorable public opinion rather than do the morally right thing, there can be extremely dire consequences.
Reverend Parris' concerns about his reputation are immediately evident in Act 1. Parris is very quick to position himself on the side of the accusers as soon as Abigail throws the first punch, and he immediately threatens violence on Tituba if she doesn't confess pg. He appears to have no governing system of morality. His only goal is to get on the good side of the community as a whole, even in the midst of this bout of collective hysteria.
Abigail also shows concern for her reputation. She is enraged when Parris questions her suspicious dismissal from the Proctor household. Abigail insists that she did nothing to deserve it and tries to put all the blame on Elizabeth Proctor. She says, "My name is good in the village! I will not have it said my name is soiled! Goody Proctor is a gossiping liar!
In this act, we learn more details about the accused that paint a clearer picture of the influence of reputation and social standing on the patterns of accusations. Goody Good, an old beggar woman, is one of the first to be named a witch. Rebecca Nurse, a woman whose character was previously thought to be unimpeachable, is accused and arrested. This is taken as evidence that things are really getting out of control "if Rebecca Nurse be tainted, then nothing's left to stop the whole green world from burning.
People in power continue to believe the accusers out of fear for their own safety, taking the hysteria to a point where no one is above condemnation. At the end this act, John Proctor delivers a short monologue anticipating the imminent loss of the disguises of propriety worn by himself and other members of the Salem community. The faces that people present to the public are designed to garner respect in the community, but the witch trials have thrown this system into disarray. In a way, John welcomes the loss of his reputation because he feels so guilty about the disconnect between how he is perceived by others and the sins he has committed.
John Proctor sabotages his own reputation in Act 3 after realizing it's the only way he can discredit Abigail. This is a decision with dire consequences in a town where reputation is so important, a fact that contributes to the misunderstanding that follows. She continues to act under the assumption that his reputation is of the utmost importance to him, and she does not reveal the affair. This lie essentially condemns both of them. Danforth also acts out of concern for his reputations here. He references the many sentencing decisions he has already made in the trials of the accused. This fact could destroy his credibility , so he is biased towards continuing to trust Abigail. Danforth has extensive pride in his intelligence and perceptiveness.
This makes him particularly averse to accepting that he's been fooled by a teenage girl. Though hysteria overpowered the reputations of the accused in the past two acts, in act 4 the sticking power of their original reputations becomes apparent. Parris begs Danforth to postpone their hangings because he fears for his life if the executions proceed as planned. In the final events of Act 4, John Proctor has a tough choice to make between losing his dignity and losing his life. The price he has to pay in reputation to save his own life is ultimately too high. I have given you my soul; leave me my name! Here are a few discussion questions to consider after you've read my summary of how the theme of reputation motivates characters and plot developments in The Crucible :.
If you're an old beggar woman who sometimes takes shelter in this creepy shack, you better believe these jerks are gonna turn on you as soon as anyone says the word "witch. The desire to preserve and gain power pervades The Crucible as the witch trials lead to dramatic changes in which characters hold the greatest control over the course of events. Where before she was just an orphaned teenager, now, in the midst of the trials, she becomes the main witness to the inner workings of a Satanic plot. The main pillars of traditional power are represented by the law and the church. These two institutions fuse together in The Crucible to actively encourage accusers and discourage rational explanations of events.
The girls are essentially given permission by authority figures to continue their act because they are made to feel special and important for their participation. The people in charge are so eager to hold onto their power that if anyone disagrees with them in the way the trials are conducted, it is taken as a personal affront and challenge to their authority. Danforth, Hathorne, and Parris become even more rigid in their views when they feel they are under attack. As mentioned in the overview, religion holds significant power over the people of Salem.
Reverend Parris is in a position of power as the town's spiritual leader, but he is insecure about his authority. He believes there is a group of people in town determined to remove him from this position, and he will say and do whatever it takes to retain control. This causes problems down the line as Parris allows his paranoia about losing his position to translate into enthusiasm for the witch hunt. Abigail, on the other hand, faces an uphill battle towards more power over her situation. She is clearly outspoken and dominant, but her initial position in society is one of very little influence and authority.
Abigail accuses Tituba first because Tituba is the one person below her on the ladder of power, so she makes an easy scapegoat. If Tituba was permitted to explain what really happened, the ensuing tragedy might have been prevented. No one will listen to Tituba until she agrees to confirm the version of events that the people in traditional positions of authority have already decided is true, a pattern which continues throughout the play. By Act 2, there have been notable changes in the power structure in Salem as a result of the ongoing trials. This new power is exciting and very dangerous because it encourages the girls to make additional accusations in order to preserve their value in the eyes of the court.
Abigail, in particular, has quickly risen from a nobody to one of the most influential people in Salem. No one thinks a teenage orphan girl is capable of such extensive deception or delusion , so she is consistently trusted. She openly threatens Danforth for even entertaining Mary and John's accusations of fraud against her. Though Danforth is the most powerful official figure in court, Abigail manipulates him easily with her performance as a victim of witchcraft. He's already accepted her testimony as evidence, so he is happy for any excuse to believe her over John and Mary. John finally comes to the realization that Mary's truthful testimony cannot compete with the hysteria that has taken hold of the court.
The petition he presents to Danforth is used as a weapon against the signers rather than a proof of the innocence of Elizabeth, Martha, and Rebecca. Abigail's version of events is held to be true even after John confesses to their affair in a final effort to discredit her. Logic has no power to combat paranoia and superstition even when the claims of the girls are clearly fraudulent.
John Proctor surrenders his agency at the end of Act 3 in despair at the determination of the court to pursue the accusations of witchcraft and ignore all evidence of their falsehood. By Act 4, many of the power structures that were firmly in place earlier in the play have disintegrated. Reverend Parris has fallen from his position of authority as a result of the outcomes of the trials. In Act 1 he jumped on board with the hysteria to preserve his power, but he ended up losing what little authority he had in the first place and, according to Miller's afterward, was voted out of office soon after the end of the play.
The prisoners have lost all faith in earthly authority figures and look towards the judgment of God. The only power they have left is in refusing to confess and preserving their integrity. I n steadfastly refusing to confess, Rebecca Nurse holds onto a great deal of power. The judges cannot force her to commit herself to a lie, and her martyrdom severely damages their legitimacy and favor amongst the townspeople. Here are some discussion questions to consider after reading about the thematic role of the concepts of power and authority in the events of the play:. Mary Warren when she comes back from Salem in Act 2. These are themes that could be considered subsets of the topics detailed in the previous sections, but there's also room to discuss them as topics in their own right.
I'll give a short summary of how each plays a role in the events of The Crucible. The theme of guilt is one that is deeply relevant to John Proctor's character development throughout the play. John feels incredibly ashamed of his affair with Abigail, so he tries to bury it and pretend it never happened. His guilt leads to great tension in interactions with Elizabeth because he projects his feelings onto her, accusing her of being judgmental and dwelling on his mistakes.
In reality, he is constantly judging himself, and this leads to outbursts of anger against others who remind him of what he did he already feels guilty enough! Hale also contends with his guilt in act 4 for his role in condemning the accused witches , who he now believes are innocent. There's a message here about the choices we have in dealing with guilt. John attempts to crush his guilt instead of facing it, which only ends up making it an even more destructive factor in his life.
Hale tries to combat his guilt by persuading the prisoners to confess, refusing to accept that the damage has already been done. Both Hale and Proctor don't want to live with the consequences of their mistakes, so they try to ignore or undo their past actions. Miller's portrayal of women in The Crucible is a much-discussed topic. The attitudes towards women in the s, when the play was written, are evident in the roles they're given. The most substantial female character is Abigail, who is portrayed as a devious and highly sexualized young woman. She is cast as a villain. Then, on the other end of the spectrum, we have Rebecca Nurse.
She is a sensible, saintly old woman who chooses to martyr herself rather than lie and confess to witchcraft. The other two main female characters, Elizabeth and Mary Warren, are somewhat bland. Elizabeth is defined by her relationship to John, and Mary is pushed around by other characters mostly men throughout the play. The Crucible presents a view of women that essentially reduces them to caricatures of human beings that are defined by their roles as mothers, wives, and servants to men.
Abigail, the one character who breaks from this mold slightly, is portrayed extremely unsympathetically despite the fact that the power dynamic between her and John makes him far more culpable in their illicit relationship. Deception is a major driving force in The Crucible. This includes not only accusatory lies about the involvement of others in witchcraft but also the lies that people consistently tell about their own virtuousness and purity in such a repressive society. The turmoil in Salem is propelled forward by desires for revenge and power that have been simmering beneath the town's placid exterior. There is a culture of keeping up appearances already in place, which makes it natural for people to lie about witnessing their neighbors partaking in Satanic rituals when the opportunity arises especially if it means insulating themselves from similar accusations and even achieving personal gain.
The Crucible provides an example of how convenient lies can build on one another to create a universally accepted truth even in the absence of any real evidence. Even before the witch trials, the people of Salem are doing lots of little magic tricks to make all their unholy thoughts and actions disappear. It's one thing to understand the major themes in The Crucible , and it's another thing completely to write about them yourself. Essay prompts will ask about these themes in a variety of different ways.
Some will be very direct. An example would be something like:. Choose a single character and discuss how this person embodies one of the themes. In a case like this, you'd be writing directly about a specific theme in connection to one of the characters. Essay questions that ask about themes in this straightforward way can be tricky because there's a temptation to speak in vague terms about the theme's significance. Always include specific details, including direct quotes, to support your argument about how the theme is expressed in the play. Other essay questions may not ask you directly about the themes listed in this article, but that doesn't mean that the themes are irrelevant to your writing.
Here's another example of a potential essay question for The Crucible that's less explicit in its request for you to discuss themes of the play:. Explain who you believe is the central tragic character in the play. What are their strengths and personal flaws? How does the central tragic character change throughout the play, and how does this relate to the play's title? How do outside forces contribute to the character's flaws and eventual downfall? In this case, you're asked to discuss the concept of a tragic character, explaining who fits that mold in The Crucible and why.
There are numerous connections between the flaws of individual characters and the overarching themes of the play that could be brought into this discussion. This is especially true with the reputation and hysteria themes. If you argued that John Proctor was the central tragic character, you could say that his flaws were an excessive concern for his reputation and overconfidence in the power of reason to overcome hysteria. Both flaws led him to delay telling the truth about Abigail's fraudulent claims and their previous relationship, thus dooming himself and many others to death or imprisonment.
Even with prompts that ask you to discuss a specific character or plot point, you can find ways to connect your answer to major themes. These connections will bolster your responses by positioning them in relation to the most important concepts discussed throughout the play. Now that you've read about the most important themes in The Crucible , check out our list of every single character in the play , including brief analyses of their relationships and motivations. You can also read my full summary of The Crucible here for a review of exactly what happens in the plot in each act. The Crucible is commonly viewed as an allegorical representation of the communist "witch hunts" conducted in the s.
Take a look at this article for details on the history and thematic parallels behind this connection.The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible is clearly outspoken and dominant, but her initial position in The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible is one of very little influence and authority. The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible one hand, it is undoubtedly used for evil purposes, but it also acts The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible a source of The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible, purpose, conviction and connection in the worst of times. The attitudes towards women in The Role Of Adultery In The Crucible s, when the play was written, are evident 2-Benzimidazyl And Hydrochloric Acid Synthesis Essay the The Poverty Problem In China they're given.