✯✯✯ Cryogenics Informative Speech

Wednesday, November 24, 2021 4:02:51 PM

Cryogenics Informative Speech



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Informative Speaking

The ITER Organization is one of the featured speakers during the global livestream; other representatives of the international fusion community will be announced soon. The objective of the meeting is to provide a forum for discussing topics of relevance to fusion data processing, validation and analysis with a view to addressing the needs of next-step fusion devices such as ITER. The validation and analysis of experimental data obtained from diagnostics used to characterize fusion plasmas are crucial for a knowledge-based understanding of the physical processes governing the dynamics of these plasmas. The meeting aims, in particular, at fostering discussions about research and development advancements in these topics made in the current major fusion confinement devices.

More details, including how to contribute, can be found here. The realization of the ITER machine is only possible when everyone is willing to compromise and come together to solve evolving issues. Read the original article here. A high-performance fusion regime called Super-H mode is being used on the DIII-D tokamak US to test methods to control heat and particle flow at the edge of the fusion plasma. It works by increasing temperature and pressure in the outer region of the plasma, called the pedestal. Higher pressures and temperatures at the pedestal lead to much higher fusion performance in the core. The new approach uses advanced control algorithms and optimized methods of cooling the edge of the plasma without excessively degrading reactions in the core.

The results identify a pathway for increased performance at ITER and the fusion power plants that will follow. Read the full press release here. Developed in reply to the COVID pandemic and the necessary restrictions to in-person visiting, the virtual visit now co-exists alongside other options, including individual and group visits, on the ITER webpage dedicated to visitors. The virtual visit option will remain available to the public even after COVID-related restrictions end, allowing fusion aficionados from around the globe a chance to better appreciate the progress on the ITER construction site. What can you expect from a virtual visit? Come and join us. We look forward to welcoming you virtually to ITER! Four Danish universities have collaborated to create DANfusion, a government-funded consortium allowing researchers to work together and share resources as they study fusion physics and engineering.

Through DANfusion funding, researchers will have the opportunity to visit national and international fusion experiments to gain greater knowledge in their field, and to accumulate hands-on experience through fusion-relevant summer schools and resources like the Technical University of Denmark's NORTH tokamak. The overarching goal of DANfusion is to strengthen the bond among national scientific communities through shared knowledge and united research efforts. Read the EUROfusion announcement here. Department of Energy. The webinar will take place from CEST. There is no fee to attend, but please contact kfortini stellarenergyfoundation.

Read the original event announcement here. A video recording of the webinar is available here. Further details on the event will be shared as information becomes available. A virtual symposium on fusion research will take place on Friday, 18 June, from p. This event is organized by PhD students Richelle Boone Leiden University and Michiel Bron Maastricht University , and aims to explore fusion from the perspectives of social sciences and the humanities. The symposium will feature seven sessions with experts presenting the historical, philosophical, sociological, economic and political aspects of fusion. The symposium is free to attend, but registration is required.

See the event page here. The event was recorded and can be viewed back through this link. The latest volume of the Bulletin explores the possibilities of fusion. The Bulletin contains thirteen articles that explain the mechanics of fusion and highlight a few of the fusion projects currently developing around the world, including the ITER project. Find the latest issue on fusion here. The publication is a follow-up to the IAEA textbook on fusion physics, which is consultable here. All Bachelor, Masters and Doctoral students of fusion are invited to submit a cover design proposal, in a Book Cover Contest that ends on Wednesday 30 June See all information and instructions on the FuseNet website. For anyone who would like to join as an observer, you must register through this link by 7 May The biennial Fusion Energy Conference is the premier gathering for the international fusion science community.

It fosters the exchange of scientific and technical results in nuclear fusion research and development and provides a forum for the discussion of key physics and technology issues as well as innovative concepts of direct relevance to the use of nuclear fusion as a future source of energy. The aim of the Summer School is to provide an introduction to the fundamental principles of plasma physics, together with a broad understanding of its fields of application.

The organizers of the School assume no previous knowledge of the subject, but familiarity with electromagnetism and applied mathematics at first degree level would be helpful. All are renowned experts in their fields. The deadline for applications is 30 July. Potential projects are listed on this Fusion CDT webpage. Students undertake a 4 year PhD, where the first year allows students to explore the research area and build strong expertise in their "home" discipline while developing the skills and knowledge to cross disciplinary boundaries effectively.

Students also undertake a formal programme of taught coursework to develop and enhance technical knowledge across a range of appropriate disciplines, as well as enhancing skills. Qualified overseas applicants are welcome to apply; however, the availability of fully funded positions is limited. For all application information see this page on the Fusion CDT website. Are you a female student or a young professional in the field of nuclear physics or nuclear engineering? Are you wondering in which area to specialize, or what the right next step in your career is? Then this IAEA webinar featuring careers for women in fusion science and technology might be the right one for you!

Five renowned female fusion experts will highlight their own career paths and what motivated them to start working and stay in this field. They will discuss the role of women in fusion science and technology, what is needed to increase the representation of female experts in this field and why fusion offers a promising career for women. Deadlines are fast approaching for the submittal of documents: Deadline for submitting manuscripts and other materials presentations, summary slides, posters, journal articles : 9 April Deadline for submitting recorded presentations: 15 April See the IAEA FEC website for guidelines and uploading instructions.

To register as an observer complete Form A here right margin. Potential sponsors and journalists should consult the local organizer website here. Scientists at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in San Diego, California, have released a new design for a compact fusion reactor that can generate electricity and help define the technology necessary for commercial fusion power.

The approach is based on the "Advanced Tokamak" concept pioneered by the DIII-D program, which enables a higher-performance, self-sustaining configuration that holds energy more efficiently than in typical pulsed configurations, allowing it to be built at a reduced scale and cost. Richard Buttery. Our simulations show that by carefully shaping the plasma and moving the current toward its edge, we can suppress turbulent heat losses and support higher pressures at lower currents, to reach a state where the plasma sustains itself. This enables a device that can simply be turned on, generating electricity continuously in a steady state. Each tonne sector is formed from four segments, and each segment requires the same step-by-step fabrication route: contractors form and weld the inner shell, attach inner ribs and support housings, install in-wall shielding blocks, and—in the final activity to complete the segments—fit and weld the outer shell.

At Walter Tosto, in Chieti, Italy, teams are currently finalizing dimension checks on the sub-parts of sector 5, and completing welding on the segments of sectors 4 and 9. Watch the two-minute video here. This new approach shows promise in avoiding potential edge instabilities in the plasma that can pose increased plasma-material interaction challenges. Plasma instabilities known as edge-localized modes ELMs are a challenge to stable operation of fusion reactors.

Known as "grassy" ELMs, these conditions have been achieved on other devices, but often under parameters that are not suitable for large, long pulse devices like ITER. The purpose is the same: to inform the business community about upcoming contract opportunities at ITER and to create the opportunity for businesses to meet and plan together through B2B meetings. It will also be possible to meet project specialists in one-to-one Skype sessions on a variety of topics, including how to set up a business in the south of France with the Welcome Around ITER network and specific contract opportunities Hot Cell, maintenance services, Tritium Plant, remote maintenance, and European contract opportunities through Fusion for Energy. The deadline is 6 April The EUROfusion consortium has announced the award of 16 fusion energy research grants across Europe for the development of innovative new ideas and techniques.

In its meeting on 3 March , the General Assembly of EUROfusion selected 16 out of 72 Enabling Research proposals based on the recommendations of the scientific boards in four research categories. The four research categories are: materials, theory and modelling, technology and systems, and inertial fusion. View the list of the recipients and their projects on the EUROfusion website.

The 18 toroidal field magnets of the JTSA tokamak in Japan are now fully energized at a current of Reaching the full design magnetic field for this coil set is another step of the commissioning activities underway on this collaborative project, financed and executed jointly by Europe and Japan. Each of the 18 coils is 7. They produce a magnetic field running around the torus that has a strength of 2. This field is fundamental to confining the superheated plasma of the tokamak.

The successful generation of the toroidal field demonstrates the simultaneous operation of numerous tokamak systems, in particular the cryoplant, cryodistribution, the cryostat, the thermal shields, power supply, instrumentation, and central control. The commissioning phase will culminate with first plasma later this year. More information here. Some experiments will use just tritium; others will combine deuterium and tritium in equal proportions.

Both types of experiment are important, the author explains, because a key goal is to understand the effect of tritium's larger mass on plasma behaviour tritium has two neutrons in its nucleus, whereas deuterium has one and hydrogen has none. That will help in predicting the impact of using different isotopes in ITER. Read the full article here. Nuclear News dedicates more than 50 pages to fusion energy, at a time when there is an increasing groundswell of interest in fusion in the United States and coalescence around the idea of constructing a fusion pilot plant.

See a preview of the issue, or subscribe on the American Nuclear Society's website. The National Academies of Science, Engineering and Medicine has released a report calling for the construction in the US of a megawatt pilot fusion power plant. Grid , with the aim of providing guidance on the key goals and innovation needed to build an electricity-producing fusion power plant at lowest possible capital cost. This is the third major US report on fusion in 24 months. Burning Plasma Research , recommending 1 that the US remain a partner in ITER "as the most cost-effective way to gain experience with a burning plasma at the scale of a power plant," and 2 that the US start a "national program of accompanying research and technology leading to the construction of a compact pilot plant.

It offers a consensus view of the bold steps to take nationally to deliver fusion energy and advance plasma science in the United States, including maintaining participation in ITER. See more here. The new publication builds on both reports. Technology and research results from U. Strong interest from the private sector is an additional motivating factor, as the process of decarbonizing and modernizing the nation's electric infrastructure accelerates and companies seek to lead the way. Or view the slides from a recent webinar on the report. The site features updated content and style, and aims to provide a wide audience, including students, the press, researchers and members of the general public, with information and regular status updates on JTSA.

Since the completion of assembly, the Japanese and European joint team is now preparing the device for first plasma, which is planned for spring Integrated commissioning is underway, including cooldown and progressive coil energization. Read all about it on the new JTSA website. Because the mechanical and thermal properties of materials can change substantially under neutron irradiation, one of the major challenges for the demonstration of fusion electricity is to develop neutron-resistant materials. Inside SCK CEN's fission research reactor BR2, the material samples spent two years facing a temperature of up to degrees Celsius in a hail of neutrons from uranium fission. SCK CEN will now partner with other European research labs to investigate how the high speed neutrons have impacted the thermo-mechanical properties of the irradiated samples.

Read the full report on the EUROfusion website. Harnessing fusion energy will provide humankind with a virtually unlimited, clean and safe energy source. It might also open the way to a new, superfast way of exploring the solar system and beyond. Using the power of fusion to propel rockets to velocities otherwise unattainable, and hence dramatically shortening the duration of space travel, is not a new idea: at space agencies throughout the world, nuclear fusion propulsion has been on the agenda for decades. The latest news in the field, however, does not come from a space agency but from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory PPPL , one of the major plasma research institutions worldwide. All of sudden, Mars and the moon of Jupiter are appearing much closer.

Read a detailed article on the PPPL website. An Alfvenic reconnecting plasmoid thruster. Journal of Plasma Physics , 86 6 , In addition to a full program, which will be available globally in appropriate time zones for each audience, we will also ensure opportunities for sponsoring and networking. If you are a potential sponsor and interested in finding out more about these opportunities, you can contact us at sponsor fec Consult the FEC scientific program here. Experts will be also available for one-to-one meetings with industry representatives. The conference is free of charge but advance registration is required. You can register now through 6 April at this address.

Featuring speakers from government, business, academia, and science, the 3. See all speakers and presentations at this link. Watch the event on YouTube in Japanese or with a voiceover in English. Find out more here. Open to all European companies and organizations, the Technology Transfer Award competition aims to encourage and promote projects where a fusion technology or know-how is used or is planned to be used outside of fusion applications.

Applications will be evaluated according to the resources and efforts deployed by the candidate to achieve commercial use of the technology in a non-fusion market, as well as the socio-economic impact of the project on the market. Applications are open from 18 January to 18 March at this link. As part of its countdown to first plasma, the JTSA tokamak has entered the coil energization phase.

Superconducting coil EF2 has been supplied with up to 1 kA of power. This major commissioning milestone comes after the recent completion of the cooldown of the magnet system to 4. In the next days the current supplied to EF2 will be gradually increased as the quench detection circuits and the power supply controllers are tuned. Following a six-year upgrade program, the teams expect to begin experiments imminently. Read more about the project here. In , the film makers will present it at leading international and domestic festivals. You can view it free of charge on YouTube in Russian at this address. Following this in-depth review, the next step of the European Roadmap to Fusion Energy, the conceptual design phase, can begin. Each project phase is reviewed by a panel of independent experts before the project can advance to the next phase.

The data collected through the challenge, which is aimed at students and young professionals with an understanding of fusion without being experts, will prove useful for simulations, modelling and design studies to advance fusion research. The challenge is looking for submissions that include the following parameters: radii, plasma current, magnetic field strength, material composition of device wall and divertor, plasma shape, elongation and triangularity. Participants have until 31 January to submit their answers here. A cleaner world. A greener world. Together, they are pushing engineering to its limits to create extraordinary machines that can protect our planet for the future.

To date, it has been conducted with increasingly detailed partial models, which represented toroidal segments of the tokamak. However, the limitations of this methodology became evident as estimates of quantities relevant to design, safety and operation showed unquantifiable uncertainties, which is a risk. It can be used to determine all the quantities relevant to the ITER's nuclear operations without the aforementioned uncertainties.

Follow the link below to consult the article: Juarez, R. A full and heterogeneous model of the ITER tokamak for comprehensive nuclear analyses. Nat Energy On YouTube you can look him up as a scientific popularizer with a number of well-followed channels that tackle physics, explaining concepts like black holes, the Higgs boson and the second law of thermodynamics in an entertaining and informative way. You can watch it in Spanish here. You can see the promotional film on YouTube here.

Is fusion power a realistic green energy option for combating climate change? Should private sector fusion projects be given priority over large multinational projects such as ITER? Can we rely on renewables like wind and solar to avoid climate change? The minute webinar a. Update 18 January The recording of the webinar can be found at this link. The tree was offered by the village of Saint-Paul. China has announced that the HL-2M tokamak produced its first plasma discharge on 4 December It is a totally new machine, with some systems upgraded from the HL-2A tokamak that had been in operation since With a flexible divertor, a new set of toroidal field coils, and a shaped plasma with improved stability.

HL-2M will contribute to establishing the scientific and technical basis for optimizing the tokamak approach to fusion energy and prepare important scaling information for ITER operation. The Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology has started the construction of the building that will house the country's first tokamak and ancillary systems. It will be used to train a new generation of students in magnetic confinement fusion. Thailand made its first steps into fusion research in when a series of conferences was organized in Bangkok by specialists from the French Institute for Magnetic Fusion Research IRFM.

See this article from the Bangkok Post. Researchers at the Centre for Energy Research, Hungary, will test key elements of the ITER disruption mitigation system in a dedicated support laboratory. The DMS will use a technique called shattered pellet injection that creates small ice fragments by shattering a single large cryogenic pellet of hydrogen and neon. These fragments will then enter the plasma to protect the in-vessel components from the large heat fluxes generated during disruptions. One of the lab's first tasks will be to study the pellet fragmentation process, and to design a pellet shattering unit that produces those fragment sizes that are most effective in mitigating disruptions.

The studies carried out under this contract are part of a wider technology program that ITER carries out with its partners. This program addresses for example the optimization of the pellet formation process, the development of an optical pellet diagnostic to measure pellet velocity and integrity, as well as technology development for accelerating the pellet towards the plasma. Click here to see the press release issued by the Centre for Energy Research on the contract award. During the two-day remote meeting on 7 and 8 April , experts from the ITER Organization will be presenting specific information about contracts and procurement needs for the next years. They will be also available for one-to-one meetings with industry representatives.

Registrations will open in early January at this address. These opportunities are geared toward undergraduate and postgraduate students, with a broad array of topics across scientific, technical and support departments. Control and data acquisition, systems engineering, business operations, construction and installation, safety and security, and science and technology are all represented in this year's batch of internship opportunities. Positions are offered for up to six months; some categories are extendable to one year.

Apply before 28 February through the online e-recruiting system. Please note that internship opportunities are limited to nationals from countries participating in the ITER Project, i. The JTSA fusion experiment in Naka, Japan, has entered its integrated commissioning phase—one of the last steps before first plasma. This collaborative project, financed and executed jointly by Europe and Japan under the Broader Approach agreement, will soon be running experiments to support the operation of ITER and to investigate how best to optimize the design and operation of fusion power plants built after ITER. This phase started on 10 October and is expected to last several weeks.

You can follow the progression of cooldown here. Energizing the magnets come next, first each magnet separately before the full group together. The final step, before injecting hydrogen for making a plasma, is to test the electron cyclotron resonance heating. Read more at Fusion for Energy. The professional organization's Top 50 list singles out "compelling efforts across industries and around the world that have achieved significant milestones" during the year.

These reports, freely downloadable, aim to make the results of scientific and technical activities carried out under the ITER Agreement widely available. Typically, they are versions of internal reports that have been deemed of interest for the wider scientific and technical community, but that have not been submitted for conventional publication in scientific journals or books. Whether in person or virtual, the world's largest fusion conference will forge ahead: FEC will be maintained for May with the now-finalized scientific program.

A decision whether to maintain a physical conference or move to a virtual event will be taken in early You will be kept informed. We look forward to seeing you there! For more information about the conference and updates regarding the program, please visit the website. Schwemmer has led Fusion for Energy since 1 January The international fusion community lost a major contributor when Dr. David Swain passed away last month. His contributions to the advancement of experimental and theoretical plasma physics and technology spanned more than half a century during which he produced over scientific papers.

For much of his career, Swain's research focused on confining and heating high density plasmas, largely with high power radiowaves. He became a Fellow of the American Physical Society in Swain was also an early and critical member of the international team that designed ITER's ion cyclotron heating system. In his professional and personal life, Swain possessed a generosity of spirit, good-natured friendliness, and a dry sense of humour that made it a pleasure to work and travel with him.

His folksy sayings, rooted in his rural North Carolina upbringing, were legendary. The global ITER community will miss his character and his contributions. FusDIS contains information on fusion devices public or private that are currently in operation, under construction, closed or being planned. Please send comments to: Fusion-Physics iaea. The groundbreaking facility laid the foundation for future fusion power plants and set world records for fusion power The achievements marked a major step in fusion history. The designation, which will be formally announced at the American Nuclear Society's November meeting, recognizes TFTR "for demonstrating significant fusion energy production and tritium technologies for future nuclear fusion power plants and the first detailed exploration of magnetically confined deuterium-tritium fusion plasmas.

Read the original article on the PPPL website. Registration for the 2 October event closes on 27 September. At the end of the event you will be able to tell your students all about nuclear fusion: from the cutting-edge research that is going on, to how to make fusion a career. For the first part of the event, participants will join video calls in the language of their choice, hosted by fusion institutes in Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Ukraine, and the United Kingdom. An introductory lecture followed by a presentation of newly developed classroom materials will be the highlights of this part of the program. For more information on how to participate, see FuseNet.

This is the first of many handovers to come between the ITER construction and operation teams, and it signals that equipment installation is complete. Now, a commissioning team led by SCOD will start to energize the equipment, fill the pipes, and test the circuits and related control interfaces. The chiller plant is one element of the chilled water system that is, in turn, part of the overall ITER cooling water system. The tokamak cooling water system, the component cooling water system, the chilled water system and the heat rejection system are together responsible for removing the enormous amounts of heat generated by the tokamak and its auxiliary systems.

Each of the vacuum vessel's 44 openings will have custom-made "extensions" to create the junction to the surrounding cryostat. The first link in the two-part chain—the port stub extension—will be welded to the vacuum vessel sectors before they are shipped from their manufacturing locations; the second, port extensions, will be added during assembly on site. Responsible for the 18 upper ports, the Russian Domestic Agency has been delivering upper port stub extensions to vacuum vessel manufacturers in Korea and Europe since Upper port extensions 14 and 16 were delivered to Korea late August after a one-month sea voyage.

The timely delivery of all port stub extensions is critical for the on-time fabrication of vacuum vessel sectors, and thus the overall ITER schedule. Trained as a Doctor of Science in Physics and Mathematics, he spent much of his career at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology, KhIPT, moving from laboratory head to leading research scientist, head of the plasma diagnostics laboratory, and finally head of the Stellarators Division. Dr Voitsenya's scientific interests included magnetic plasma confinement, plasma-surface interaction, and plasma-facing mirrors for the diagnostics in ITER.

ITER's start-of-assembly celebration on 28 July generated unprecedented media interest in the project, as evidenced by 3, news stories in the printed press in 41 languages countries. Watch the segment of News, In Depth here. Plunge 30 metres into the ITER Tokamak pit, relive the insertion of the cryostat base, and fly in and out of the ITER plant buildings to see what has changed since the last update in February Accessible from the home page of the ITER website yellow icon or by clicking on the link below, the 2D tour requires no special equipment to enjoy. If you do have 3D glasses, click on the yellow goggle symbol at the top of any screen. The ITER assembly pages are the place to go for information, photos, videos, articles and links about the step-by-step process of building the world's largest tokamak.

And, thanks to the skill of ITER CAD technician Kevin Ballant, the pages open to a new video that shows you how the ITER Organization assembly teams will proceed—from installing the cryostat base and lower cryostat components at the bottom of the assembly arena, to the placement of the central column and radial beams of the in-pit assembly tool, the vacuum sector sub-assemblies, the magnets, upper cryostat components, and finally the cryostat lid.

Visit the new ITER assembly pages here. Therefore, we re-arranged the planning of activities, prioritised some critical ones. We put forward a short-term plan to keep up the progress, while ensuring full compliance with protocols," explains Max Febvre, Fusion for Energy Manufacturing Project Manager for the vacuum vessel. As a result, the impact of the pandemic was not as disruptive as expected. See a full report plus recent photos here. Registration for the event on 2 October is free of charge and open now. At the end of the event you will be able to tell your students all about nuclear fusion: from the cutting-edge research that is going on, to how to make fusion a career!

Looking for a new way to explain fusion in your classrooms and boardrooms? Interested in a two-minute summary of what fusion is and how it can change our future? See the video here. Synthetic diamond windows will play a double function in the ITER machine—allowing the microwaves of the electron cyclotron heating system to pass through to reach the plasma while providing an effective leak-proof vacuum barrier. High-purity CVD chemical vapour deposition diamond windows offer unsurpassed hardness, broad band optical transparency, and extremely high thermal conductivity.

See the full story here. A wealth of information about the behaviour and stability of the ITER plasma will be communicated by the return signals of the low-field side reflectometer LFSR —a diagnostic that shoots a frequency-modulated FM millimetre wave signal a type of microwave into the plasma and gathers information about the plasma edge in return. The LFSR is the first device of its kind to measure the plasma density, and process and report the data to the central tokamak control system in real-time. This allows it to serve as an alert system, as abrupt changes in the steepness of the edge density profile, or gradient, can lead to instabilities known as edge localized modes ELMs , which release large amounts of energy. Online Dating Guide. No matter who you ask, you will get the same answer: dating nowadays is hard.

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A pump, called a compressor, is used to move the refrigerant between the two coils and to change the pressure of the refrigerant. When the indoor temperature reaches the set point on your thermostat or control system, the air conditioner or heat pump pauses until your indoor air gets too hot. The refrigeration cycle continues as needed for your indoor comfort, year after year, providing a consistent method to keep you cool. When comparing an air conditioner to a heat pump, be sure that you also compare the various features, SEER Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio value, and the size or tonnage.

The performance of the heat pump and air conditioner will only be identical if all of the efficiency aspects are identical, as well. The heat pump and the air conditioner may rely on the same basic refrigeration principle, but if all of the cooling details are identical, there is still one key difference. In a heat pump, a flip in the direction of refrigeration results in warm air being pushed through the interior vents your home! Unlike an air conditioner, a heat pump is designed with a reversing valve that automatically changes the direction of the refrigerant flow when heat is needed instead of air conditioning. The refrigeration cycle is based on the physical principles that heat flows to cold, and a liquid expanding into a gas pulls heat from its surroundings.

When the reversing valve flips to the heat mode, the refrigerant becomes cold enough in the outdoor coil to absorb heat from the outside air. This is opposite from the cooling mode when heat is absorbed from the indoor air by the indoor coil. The reversing valve changes the direction of the refrigeration cycle, causing the outside coil to function as the evaporator and the indoor coil to function as the condenser. As the refrigerant flows through the outdoor coil, the refrigerant changes from a gas to a liquid as it absorbs heat from the outside air. Although outside temperatures are cold, enough outdoor heat energy is absorbed by the chilled external coil and released inside by the warm indoor coil in the air handler. Cool air from the inside of your house is pulled into duct work by a motorized fan in the air handler.

Once the heat energy is transferred from the indoor coil to the cool indoor air, it becomes warm. This warm air is pushed through connecting ducts to air vents throughout the home, increasing the interior temperature until it reaches the set point on your thermostat or control system. When the indoor temperature reaches the set point on your thermostat or control system, the heat pump pauses until your indoor air gets too cold.

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To ensure your technician is a true service professional, you should dig deeper to trust that the job gets done right, the first time! The repair or purchase of an indoor comfort system is not one to be taken lightly. After all, you are making a big decision that should last 10 years or longer. The Comfort Institute, an international indoor comfort research, training and consumer protection organization, suggests that homeowners get as much information on their prospective HVAC dealers as possible. The organization recommends that homeowners ask HVAC dealers questions such as: 1. A conscientious HVAC dealer should be open to answers your questions, especially if they are interested in building a long-term relationship.

Once you understand more about the refrigerant in your system, you know that an air conditioner or heat pump is not designed to consume refrigerant. If an HVAC technician arrives to diagnose your equipment to make repairs, they should walk you through the diagnosis step-by-step, explain remedies, and be open to questions. Using an amateur, inexperienced or dishonest contractor can cost you money long after that initial visit. Frequent repairs, lackluster energy efficiency, excessive utility bills and compromised indoor comfort may be just a few of the long term consequences associated with hiring the wrong technician.

So what should you pay attention to? You may find yourself trusting your HVAC technician if they are more interested in providing superior services than selling. A conscientious HVAC professional builds their business on long-term relationships and referrals from happy clients, rather than making the quick buck. If you want to get the best value for your money, take the time necessary to protect your investment — your heating and cooling system will thank you! Comfort Institute. A lot may have changed since you bought your last home. Overall, today's homes can be more energy efficient than homes built as recently as the early s. This higher efficiency is due to thicker and better insulation, window Low-E glazing, sealing of air gaps and other factors.

Why is this important? Understanding how efficient a new home is will help you better understand why the Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning HVAC system was selected specifically for your home. The calculation determines how much heat gets into the home from external sources and calculates the necessary tonnage of air conditioning is needed to effectively cool your home The sizing calculation is based a variety of site-specific information, including:.

An HVAC system needs care just like a car needs oil changes, tire rotations and other regular maintenance suggested by the manufacturer. Proper installation matters! This is especially true of heating, ventilation, and air condition HVAC equipment. HVAC installation is much more complicated than installing batteries or digging a hole. If you install a high-efficiency system, the installation can help deliver the efficiency rating you expect. A National Institute of Standards and Technology NIST study says that if your high-efficiency equipment is installed improperly, it may not be running as efficient as you think! How often have you reached for a blanket or sweater only to take it off again when the gas furnace turns back on?

Need help minimizing that wavering chill in your home during the coldest months of the year? The answer may be more straightforward than you think! Simply, ask your local HVAC dealer about a high-efficiency, variable-speed gas furnace. When your thermostat calls for heat, the gas valve on your gas furnace opens, and the burners ignite. The heat created by the ignited burners helps warm the cool air pulled in from inside your home. However, this warmed air needs a little push to get distributed to rooms in your house. This is where the variable speed blower motor comes in. It delivers… literally! It moves the air into your ductwork, through room vents, and into your indoor spaces.

It can start up slow and continue operating at a low speed when the heating demand is low. On the coldest days of the year, it can kick into high gear to provide cozy indoor warmth. As a result, you may feel a more consistent room temperature with a modulating, variable speed gas furnace. Of course, your results may vary depending on the energy-efficiency of your home, insulation variables, and the design of your central heating system. Your central, variable speed heater may operate for extended periods of time when compared to a single-speed model, but at lower speeds.

This may also allow more time for the circulating air in your home to interact with filters or additional air quality system components. If you are concerned about energy-efficiency heating and energy bills, you may want to consider a gas furnace equipped with variable speed technology. But can slow and steady heat delivery actually save energy? When paired with a modulating valve feature that regulates the amount of fuel burned, your gas furnace is designed to produce just the right amount of heat to match demand. A modulating valve can be compared to the gas burner on a stove. The same goes for indoor heating. Once a room is up to temperature, the modulating gas valve and variable speed option may reduce output to keep your indoor spaces at the set temperature.

In short, a modulating or multi-speed gas furnace is designed to operate at the lowest speed to achieve the indoor temperature that you prefer in your home. So if you cozy up to reduce energy-usage and increased comfort when the outdoor temperatures are falling, it may be time to invest in a variable speed, modulating gas furnace. Your dealer can discuss the overall replacement cost for each type of gas furnace and any modifications required. It is important to remember that a higher-efficiency model may cost more initially, but the increase in operational energy-efficiency may save you money month-over-month, year-over-year. So how do you choose? You should start by evaluating your budget, financing options, and current living situation.

If your current budget cannot cover the initial cost of a high-efficiency furnace, financing may offer you the opportunity to pay for your system over time while reaping the monthly energy cost savings. It could be a win-win situation! The difference in monthly utility bill savings from a high-efficiency gas furnace may be enough to pay for the initial installation cost variation. Homeowners should also evaluate their anticipated length of home ownership to determine how long it would take to recuperate initial costs of a higher AFUE model.

The following questions may help you determine your gas furnace replacement budget:. To ensure you hire a qualified professional that best fits the job, there are several important steps to take. Ask neighbors, friends, and family for referrals. Referrals can give a homeowner insight as to the type of experience they can expect from a particular contractor. Similarly, you can ask contractors for customer references and contact them to gather more information. According to energystar. A quick glance at the number of review stars can often be misleading. Be sure to read the written comments and look for licensed contractors with a good reputation for value, quality and customer service. Providing prompt solutions and addressing any errors is the mark of a good service company.

Your state may require that HVAC contractors be licensed, bonded and insured. This information can often be found online. Once you have scheduled a service appointment, there are a few things to pay attention to:. Communication: Does the technician or dispatcher stay in touch with you by phone, text, or email leading up to the service appointment?

Do they communicate any schedule changes in a timely manner? Punctuality: Does the technician arrive within the specified time window? Certification: Many technicians are certified through organizations such as NATE North American Technician Excellence , and these patches are often displayed on their uniforms. Does your technician have any certification patches displayed on their uniform? Patience: Does the technician listen to your concerns, take time to explain their findings and answer any questions you may have? This process can take time and should not just be a quick once-over. Upon completion, the technician should go over any concerning results.

A good technician will be pleasant, professional, knowledgeable, courteous, patient and willing to answer your questions. Remember, they are a service company — their job is to serve you to the best of their ability. If you are not happy with something, do not be afraid to ask them to fix it. If you are looking to purchase and install a new heating or cooling system or both from a contractor, be sure you are working with a professional licensed HVAC contractor who is willing to provide a limited warranty for their work and products installed.

Doing the job properly the first time may help eliminate the need for repeat visits, as well as ensure your system is running at peak performance. This can be a worthwhile investment. Maintaining the efficiency of your equipment and components can help ensure peak performance and may extend the life of the system. Most HVAC manufacturers provide tools to assist homeowners in finding an independent dealer. These contractors typically offer a value-focused, flexible and informative approach to heating or cooling maintenance, service or purchases. Unless you are exercising — you do not expect to sweat inside your home. So when your air conditioning system breaks down, you want it fixed yesterday! But a time may come when you need to decide whether to repair or replace your air conditioner, and the decision may not be an easy one.

Unless your air conditioner is damaged beyond repair, there are no hard rules in determining whether to replace or repair your system. However, below are a few concepts that may help guide your decision:. Even with proper maintenance and the dedicated efforts of a highly-skilled HVAC contractor, an aging air conditioner may start to show its age. If your unit is nearing its life expectancy, you may consider a replacement as an alternative to costly repairs. According to the Department of Energy, many older residential air conditioning systems in the U. SEER stands for Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio and measures the annual energy consumption and efficiency of the unit in typical day-to-day use. Air conditioning repairs come in all shapes, sizes and costs! Every repair-replace scenario is unique to the unit and the expectations of the homeowner.

A professional licensed HVAC technician can provide you with an estimate of repair cost, as well as supply equipment-specific reasons to consider a replacement unit. If a repair is necessary, homeowners should decide their repair cost cutoff point. The long-term utility bill savings of purchasing a higher efficiency air condition system may outweigh the price of a series of costly repairs. However, if your HVAC contractor provides repair estimates that come close to your predetermined budget threshold, it may be best to start researching new air conditioner models.

On the contrary, if the air conditioner problem is an easy, relatively inexpensive fix that restores peak efficiency, a repair may be the best approach. When deciding between an air conditioning repair or replacement, homeowners should consider if their cooling needs are being addressed by their current unit. You may ask yourself:. There are times when the real source of a cooling problem is not a dying HVAC unit, but ineffective components of the system. Technology is changing the way we live and AC manufacturers are taking note by applying advanced mechanics to their products to increase comfort.

Advanced features, such as improved motor and compressor technologies , as well as smart home automation and communication may provide homeowners with more precise temperature control, noise reduction and energy efficiency when compared to their current model. Despite SEER rating, if your air condition system is not running at peak performance, you may be spending more money on utility bills than necessary. Keeping your system at peak performance and running as intended can be financially beneficial!

Under the same driving conditions, your gasoline costs to drive 30 miles in a 15 MPG car will be higher than one with a 30 MPG rating. The same goes for SEER ratings. Typically, the longer you plan to live in your house, the longer you have to recover the cost of a new high-efficiency air conditioning unit. When determining to repair or replace your current AC, homeowners should evaluate their anticipated length of home ownership by asking themselves the following questions:.

While there are a lot of variables to examine when determining whether to repair or replace your air conditioner, the best source of information can come from your licensed professional HVAC contractor. Because these local professionals understand the details associated with your particular system, they are the most qualified to provide repair or replace guidance. It comes on the moment the indoor temperature set on the thermostat requires cooling performance, and then runs quietly and efficiently when needed. It is estimated that the air you breathe inside your home is more polluted than the air outside your home. Indoor air filtration can help maintain the efficient operation of your cooling system by removing a wide range of airborne dust and reducing airborne particulates that can build up on the surface of the cooling coil.

It is important to change your filters regularly. As filters become loaded with particulates, your system has to work harder, increasing your cooling bills. Want to learn more? Check out our video on "How an AC works! A heat pump transfers heat from one place to another. An air source heat pump system uses advanced technology and the refrigeration cycle to heat and cool your home. This allows a heat pump to provide year-round indoor comfort — no matter what the season is. In the warmer months, the heat pump can act as an air conditioner - drawing out interior heat and humidity, and redirecting it to the outside.

During colder months, heat from the outdoor air is extracted and transferred to the interior of your home. Science is amazing! For example, when there is a temperature difference such as your This is why you start to feel cold! That's the job of the refrigerant in a heat pump. Colder months: Heat pumps pulls heat from the outside air and transfer the heat to your home. Warmer months: Heat pumps pulls warm air and humidity from inside your home and transfer it outside, leaving cooler air indoors.

Heat pumps have been used for many years in locations that typically experience milder winters. However, air-source heat pump technology has advanced over the past five years, enabling these systems to be used in areas with extended periods of subfreezing temperatures. To get a better idea of how your air is heated or cooled, it helps to know a little bit about the parts that make up the heat pump system. A typical air-source heat pump system is a split or two-part system that uses electricity as its power source.

The system contains an outdoor unit that looks similar to an air conditioner and an indoor air handler. The heat pump works in conjunction with the air handler to distribute the warm or cool air to interior spaces. In addition to the electrical components and a fan, a heat pump system includes: Compressor : Moves the refrigerant through the system. Control board : Controls whether the heat pump system should be in cooling, heating or defrost mode. Coils : The condenser and evaporating coil heat or cool the air depending on the directional flow of refrigerant. Refrigerant : The substance in the refrigeration lines that circulates through the indoor and outdoor unit.

Reversing valves : Change the flow of refrigerant which determines if your interior space is cooled or heated. Thermostatic expansion valves : Regulate the flow of refrigerant just like a faucet valve regulates the flow of water. The accumulator : A reservoir that adjusts the refrigerant charge depending on seasonal needs. Refrigeration lines and pipes : Connect the inside and outside equipment. Heat strips : An electric heat element is used for auxiliary heat. This added component is used to add additional heat on cold days or to recover from lower set back temperatures rapidly.

Ducts : Serve as air tunnels to the various spaces inside your home. Thermostat or control system : Sets your desired temperature. Every once in a while with indoor comfort, you CAN have it all! Precise, energy-efficient indoor comfort for every month of the year is like having your cake and eating it too! When properly installed and configured, a dual fuel technology indoor comfort system offers the incredible combination of year-round comfort and energy-efficient performance! A dual fuel system may come in the form of a packaged unit or a split system with two energy sources: the electric heat pump and a gas furnace.

Dual fuel technology combines the cooling and heating performance that you get from a heat pump with the consistent heating capacity of a gas furnace. What makes this system so precise and energy efficient for heating is that it seamlessly alternates between the two energy sources for heating comfort, depending on your specific outdoor conditions. When the thermostat or control system calls for cool air, the heat pump unit functions just like a central air conditioner, it is designed to keep your home cool and comfortable even on extremely hot days. When your home needs moderate heating output, the heat pump reverses the refrigerant flow to provide warm air in your home and operates like a typical heat pump.

In a dual fuel system, if the heating demand exceeds the preset heating capacity of the electric heat pump, the heat pump pauses, and the gas furnace takes over until the indoor temperature reaches the desired temperature on your thermostat or control system. The system's switch point from the heat pump to the gas furnace can be set on the thermostat or control system by you or your dealer. Even on extremely cold days in winter, your dual fuel system is designed to provide energy-efficient, reliable, and consistent heat. Because certain energy sources, like electricity and natural gas, operate most efficiently during specific weather conditions, a dual fuel system may maximize efficiency, and cut heating bills. Yet, heat source efficiency is only part of the equation.

The cost of electricity and natural gas in your location can affect the cost-effectiveness of a dual fuel system. For example, in the annual average electricity price in Hawaii was estimated at When a dual fuel system's switch point can be determined by you or your dealer, the specific energy source pricing can be incorporated into the cost and efficiency equation. If switching from the heat pump to the gas furnace reduces the time required to get to your set temperature, your energy cost of operation may decrease, and your comfort level may increase.

Although the electricity may cost less than the natural gas in some areas, it may cost you more if your heat pump has to operate longer to meet your indoor temperature needs. The flexibility of using a heat pump and a gas furnace may provide the homeowner with energy cost savings. However, it is important to learn the utility pricing options from your local utility provider s and then discuss the potential savings a dual fuel system might offer with your licensed professional HVAC dealer. If you are looking to replace your air conditioner with a heat pump, your professional licensed HVAC dealer may be able to upgrade your system configuration so that your new heat pump works in conjunction with your existing furnace system.

If you are not currently utilizing natural gas as a heating source but it is an option is your area, homeowners interested in dual fuel systems may be able to add a high-efficiency gas furnace. The gas furnace would be the secondary heat source instead of using the heat pump's electric heat strip when the temperatures drop. To find out whether a dual fuel system is an option for your home and how you may benefit, talk to your professional licensed HVAC dealer. Department of Energy. Air-Source Heat Pumps. Energy Information Administration. Energy Information Association. Factors Affecting Electricity Prices. Air-source heat pumps and gas furnaces are the common types of central residential heating systems.

When installed and functioning properly, they can keep the indoors warm with the outdoor temperature start to fall. The higher the HSPF, the more efficient the heating performance of the heat pumps. This measurement describes how well fuel is consumed to produce heat by a gas furnace. As the AFUE rate increases, the efficiency of your gas furnace also increases. The answer depends on the type of crowd you hang around with! But really, if you are researching heat pumps or rely on a heat pump for year-round home comfort, you may have some questions.

Here are ten questions that often come up:. Are you ready to do some simple detective work? Although a heat pump provides both heating and cooling to your home, there is a simple way to determine if you have a heat pump by testing the unit in heating mode. Once you feel the heat coming from your return vent, head outside to observe that metal cabinet. Case closed! Since your heat pump is designed to heat and cool your home, it may be operating year-round.

Many dealers offer pre-season specials on inspection packages during their typical slow times of the year. Seasonal preventive maintenance on your heating and cooling system may guard against many unexpected failures and could maximize the lifecycle of your heating or cooling unit. But when that time comes, your wallet may not be ready! HVAC financing helps spread the cost of new equipment or entire systems over a predetermined amount of time. Why dip into savings you may have earmarked for another purpose, add to an existing credit card balance or even consider a home equity line of credit?

HVAC financing can be an effective means to fit a replacement system or equipment into your budget without breaking the bank. It is important to review financing details to make sure you understand your financial responsibility. Base your buying decision on long-term comfort and energy-efficiency. A high-efficient system can also allow you to feel the difference compared to your old unit. Impactful innovations such as variable-speed fans, variable-speed compressor and heat exchanger technology have ushered in a new era of HVAC operation that enhances indoor comfort and performance.

While your frugal urges may tempt you to opt for a base or minimum efficiency system, the least expensive option may not be the most cost effective solution considering the life cycle of a new, energy efficient system. High-efficient systems can realize uncompromised indoor comfort throughout your home, offer reoccurring savings on your monthly utility bill, and possibly increase the value of your home.

Moreover, consumer financing can often cover the cost of an extended service plan. Extended service plans may minimize additional out of pocket expenses you face for the term of the service plan. Ask the dealer to provide complete information before you make a decision. If you drive your car up hill, both ways, on tires with low air pressure, would you get the same miles-per-gallon MPG as you would if you were driving on a straight road, at a constant speed, with perfectly inflated wheels? Probably not. If the installation or usage varies from the standard test conditions, the performance and efficiency of an air conditioner or heat pump may be impacted.

Air conditioners and heat pumps, like automobiles, are tested within set laboratory conditions with properly matched system components. Each cooling component plays a vital role in making sure that you enjoy a comfortable indoor environment in your home. A complete cooling system may be composed of:. A licensed or professional contractor should be able to verify properly matched systems and SEER rating by providing you with a Certified Reference Number or a Certificate of Certified Product Performance. If you are considering replacing just the outdoor portion of your cooling system, be sure to discuss compatibility and efficiency with your licensed or professional HVAC dealer.

Yet, when your cooling system is not being maintained as recommended or simple home energy-efficient solutions are ignored, your energy bills may still be higher than you would like. To keep your central cooling system at peak performance, a licensed professional HVAC dealer should perform routine maintenance services. During an inspection, your dealer may identify any airflow problems, system leaks, coil issues or potential concerns that could impact your system from operating at peak performance. Typical professional maintenance services that may keep your cooling system at peak performance may include the following actions:.

Homeowners should also keep in mind additional conditions that may impact energy costs. These factors can influence the ability of your cooling system to perform at its designed efficiency level. Some conditions include, but are not limited to:. Cooling system manufacturers continue to pursue individual technologies that collectively may improve overall HVAC system efficiency. Advancements, including refrigerant, variable-speed drives, advanced controls, and additional mechanics that simplify installation, will continue to impact the energy costs associated with cool, indoor comfort.

To discover current HVAC technologies available that may improve the energy efficiency of your home, discuss the various options and potential cost saving with your licensed professional HVAC dealer. Vehicle and Field Emissions Testing. Appliance and Equipment Standards Rulemakings and Notices. In fact, the average retail price of electricity has increased from The answer may lie with a variable speed technology central heating and cooling system!

When one or more of these variable speed technology features is applied to your HVAC system, you may be able to spend less on utility costs without sacrificing your indoor comfort level. Variable speed technology refers to the type of compressor in your air conditioner or heat pump. The compressor is the heart of your air conditioning or heat pump system. It creates the cooling capacity for your system. This feature allows for various levels of output depending on your cooling demands — full capacity for hot summer days or reduced capacity for milder days. It is a great energy-efficient option when compared to a single-speed unit.

Variable speed technology can also apply to the type of blower motor located in the air handler or gas furnace. A variable speed blower motor can operate at various speeds to precisely control the amount of airflow throughout your home. If you were in a one-mile bike race, would you take the route with one hill or multiple hills? Which would require more energy?

It takes a great deal of energy to keep biking up multiple hills.

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