⒈ Middle East Gender Roles

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Middle East Gender Roles

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4/15 - Women and Gender in the Middle East

Students who study abroad may petition the Program in Middle East Studies should they seek credit toward the major of non-Smith courses that exceed half of those required by the major. The Middle East studies minor at Smith provides students with the opportunity to complement a major with a concentration of courses that treat the region in its historical, political, social and cultural complexity.

The minor provides the opportunity to study the region in an interdisciplinary fashion, with attention to key fields of knowledge. Additional language study of Arabic and Hebrew at the intermediate and advanced levels at Smith or within the Five College Consortium is strongly encouraged. Students who wish to conduct independent research may approach an adviser for permission to enroll in MES Special Studies. MES is a research-intensive course, available only to qualified juniors and seniors, and would serve as one of the electives. Apart from language classes, no more than two courses may be taken from the same department or program. And normally no more than two courses can be taken away from Smith. Students may count only the second semester of Elementary Arabic as one of the six courses to be counted toward fulfillment of the minor.

Students must complete the equivalent of a full year of both Intermediate Arabic and Advanced Arabic. Special studies in Arabic may count for as many as two of the six courses, so long as each of the special studies is worth 4 credits. If a course offered by the FCCSWL is worth less than 4 credits, students will have to make up the credit shortfall elsewhere. Students are encouraged to fulfill some of the requirements toward the minor in an Arabic-speaking country, either during a semester or summer of study abroad.

Students are also encouraged to take a course in Arabic that focuses on a topic or issue. Such courses, which may consist of a special studies, might include Media Arabic, Arabic literature, Arabic translation, Arabic linguistics syntax, semantics, pragmatics, discourse analysis , aspects of Arabic culture, film, religions, or philosophy. The honors program consists of a yearlong intensive research project typically resulting in a thesis.

The core of the program is a thesis paper, a complete draft of which is due on the first day of the second semester. Students will spend the spring semester revising their papers and will submit the final version by April 1. Students who have at least a 3. Students must have successfully completed six courses in their major prior to being accepted to the honors program; under normal circumstances, these six courses will have been completed in the Middle East Studies Program at Smith College. Students must complete the application form and receive departmental approval to be admitted to the honors program. On the application form, students will be asked to identify three courses taken that are related to their specific honors project.

See the class deans website about applying for departmental honors. Please review the departmental honors webpage for information about general guidelines for students considering an honors thesis. In order to begin the application process, the student will need to request a Calculation of GPA form by emailing honors smith. A personalized listing of all courses and grades that are eligible for calculation will be sent as a PDF by email to enable the student to determine the grade point averages both inside and outside the major. The student should also identify an advisor for the honors thesis from the MES and affiliated faculty.

Eligible students are encouraged to apply in the spring of their junior year, but fall applications are allowed as long as they are received before the end of the first week of classes. January graduates are on a different schedule. Students may register for departmental honors when choosing courses in April if their applications have been approved. The spring deadline to submit completed applications, with departmental endorsement, is the last day of final exams.

Applications to enter the departmental honors program from current second-semester juniors will be considered only after the grades for this current semester have been calculated into the GPAs. First-semester seniors must submit completed applications, with departmental endorsement, no later than the end of the first week of classes in the fall semester. Students admitted to the honors program will register for a yearlong, 8-credit honors course MES D, 4 credits in the fall and 4 credits in the spring. Students in honors must successfully complete all the requirements for the major in Middle East Studies. The two semesters of MES D may be counted as two courses toward the 11 courses required for honors students.

Students in honors are expected to participate in Collaborations by making a public presentation of their thesis. Following submission of the final paper, students will take an oral examination administered by two members of the Middle East Studies faculty. This exam will be based on the thesis and on the field in which it was written. The field is defined by the student themselves, who at the time of the exam will identify three courses which they believe bear upon the topic of the thesis. An honors applicant must submit to the Middle East Studies Program a thesis proposal consisting of to 1, words two to four pages.

Specific deadlines will be posted on the MES website. The proposal should contain the following information:. The course begins with a focus on reading, pronouncing and recognizing Arabic alphabet and progresses quickly toward developing beginner reading, writing, speaking and listening proficiencies as well as cultural competence. It covers vocabulary for everyday use, and essential communicative skills relating to real-life and task-oriented situations queries about personal well-being, family, work, and telling the time. Students will acquire vocabulary and usage for everyday interactions as well as skills that will allow them to read and analyze a range of texts at the Novice level.

In addition to the traditional textbook exercises from AlKitaab series, students will write short paragraphs and participate in role plays, presentations and conversations throughout the year. No pre-requisites for this course. Cap 18 students. Students will complete the study of the Elementary Arabic AlKitaab book series along with additional instructional materials. Emphasis will be on the integrated development of all language skills —reading, writing, listening and speaking—using a communicative-oriented, proficiency-based approach.

By the end of this semester, students will acquire vocabulary, grammatical knowledge, and language skills necessary for everyday interactions as well as skills that will allow them to communicate with a limited working proficiency in a variety of situations, read and write about a variety of factual material and familiar topics in non-technical prose. In addition to the textbook exercises, students will write short essays, do oral and video presentations and participate in role plays, discussions, and conversations throughout the semester in addition to extra-curricular activities. Prerequisites: Arabic or equivalent. It covers the four skills of the language. Writers at the intermediate level are characterized by the ability to meet practical writing needs, such as simple messages and letters, requests for information, and notes.

In addition, they can ask and respond to simple questions in writing. At the intermediate level, listeners can understand information conveyed in simple, sentence-length speech on familiar or everyday topics while readers at the same level can understand information conveyed in simple, predictable, loosely connected texts. Readers rely heavily on contextual clues.

They can most easily understand information if the format of the text is familiar, such as in a weather report or a social announcement. Speakers at the intermediate level are distinguished primarily by their ability to create with the language when talking about familiar topics related to their daily life. They are able to recombine learned material in order to express personal meaning. Students should expect text assignments as well as work with DVDs, audio materials and websites. Exercises include writing, social interactions, role plays, and the interplay of language and culture. Prerequisite is ARA or the equivalent. We complete the study of the Al Kitaab II book sequence along with additional instructional materials.

In this course, we continue perfecting knowledge of Arabic integrating the four skills: speaking, listening, reading and writing, using a communicative-oriented, proficiency-based approach. By the end of this semester, you should have sufficient comprehension in Arabic to understand most routine social demands and most nontechnical real-life conversations as well as some discussions on concrete topics related to particular interests and special fields of competence in a general professional proficiency level. You gain a broad enough vocabulary that enables you to read within a normal range of speed with almost complete comprehension a variety of authentic prose material and be able to write about similar topics. Also by the end of this semester, you should have a wide range of communicative language ability including grammatical knowledge, discourse knowledge and sociolinguistic knowledge of the Arabic language.

You should expect text assignments as well as work with DVDs, audio and video materials and websites. Exercises and activities include essay writing, social interactions, role plays and in-class conversations, oral and video presentations that cover the interplay of language and culture, extracurricular activities and a final project. Prerequisite: Arabic or permission of the instructor. Students read within a normal range of speed, listen to, discuss and respond in writing to authentic texts by writers from across the Arab world.

Text types address a range of political, social, religious and literary themes and represent a range of genres, styles and periods. All of these texts may include hypothesis, argumentation and supported opinions that covers both linguistic and cultural knowledge. This course covers Al-Kitaab, Book 3, units 1—5 in addition to extra instructional materials. Students must be able to use formal spoken Arabic as the medium of communication in the classroom. We continue to focus on developing truly active control of a large vocabulary through communicative activities.

Grammatical work focuses on complex grammatical constructions and demands increased accuracy in understanding and producing complex structures in extended discourse. Requirements also include active participation in class, weekly essays, occasional exams and presentations and a final written exam. This course covers Al-Kitaab, Book 3, units 5—10 in addition to extra instructional materials.

No previous knowledge of modern Hebrew is necessary. Enrollment limited to Credits: 5 Normally offered each fall JUD Elementary Modern Hebrew II The second half of a two-semester sequence introducing modern Hebrew language and culture, with a focus on equal development of the four language skills: reading, writing, speaking and listening. By the end of the year, students are able to comprehend short and adapted literary and journalistic texts, describe themselves and their environment, and express their thoughts and opinions.

Prerequisite: JUD or equivalent. In fall Hebrew will be taught by Joanna Caravita. There will be able to participate in the class through videoconference at Smith. For more information on the Hebrew program, or if you have a question about language placement please contact Joanna Caravita. Please consult the website of the Program in Jewish Studies for a full list of summer Hebrew language programs. MES Introduction to Middle East Studies This 8-week course of weekly lectures will provide students with a comprehensive overview of the Middle East by focusing on the big questions that animate the teaching and research of faculty in Middle East Studies and related fields. Readings, lectures, and discussions will examine political environments in the Middle East, with a focus on states as units of analysis, and on the general processes and conditions that have shaped state formation, the formation of national markets, and state-society relations in the region.

The course will equip students to understand and critically assess how political interests are organized; the development of major political, social, and economic structures and institutions; and sources of political contestation within Middle Eastern societies. This course examines the history of the modern Middle East from a global perspective. How have gender, economy, ecology, and religion shaped Middle Eastern empires and nation-states within a broader world?

Next, it turns to experiences of colonialism, the rise of independent nation-states, and the birth of new political movements. When and how have empires, colonial powers, and nation states tried to regulate intimacy, sex, love, and reproduction? How have sexual practices shaped social life, and how have perceptions of these practices changed over time? The course introduces theoretical tools for the history of sexuality and explores how contests over sexuality, reproduction, and the body shaped empires, colonial states, and nationalist projects.

Finally, we examine contemporary debates about sexuality as a basis for political mobilization in the Middle East today. It will provide a brief introduction to relevant theoretical frameworks that have been used to explain the international and regional relations of the Middle East. It then applies these theoretical frameworks through in-depth attention to a wide range of themes and cases. In addition to readings on specific cases, the course will cover the origins and development of the Arab state system, alliance dynamics, the effects of oil on international relations, war and international relations, and the domestic sources of Middle East international relations.

Through a wide range of readings, documentaries, media accounts, social media content, and other materials we dissect the most significant, and still unresolved, political transformations in the Middle East in the last years. A previous course in Middle Eastern politics, history or culture recommended, but not required. Credits: 4 Normally offered in alternate years MES Society and Development in the Middle East This course focuses on the political economy of the Arab Middle East with emphasis on the social dimensions of economic development. It provides students with insight into the effects of shifting economic and social policies and economic conditions on the peoples of the Middle East and the social transformations that have accompanied post-colonial processes of state- and market-building.

It explores how economic conditions shaped political activism, social movements, modes of protest, and broader patterns of state-society relations. Students will become familiar with theories of economic and social development and major analytic frameworks that are used to assess and make sense of society and development in the Middle East. Explores key issues in the political, social and cultural history of Zionism and the State of Israel, as examined through a specific topic of current interest. No prerequisites. Credits: 4 Expected to be offered in the next 3 years MES Encounters with Unjust Authority: Political Fiction of the Arab World This colloquium will expose students to contemporary political literature of the Arab world in translation.

Enrollment limit of The course examines the emergence of authoritarian regimes in the Arab world; their consolidation into full-fledged systems of rule; patterns and variation in authoritarian governance among Arab states; the political economy of authoritarianism; state-society relations under authoritarian rule; and authoritarian responses to democratization, economic globalization and pressures for political reform.

Prior course work on the history, politics, sociology, anthropology of the modern Middle East is useful. Attention is focused upon the relationships between Islamic visual idioms and localized religious, political and socioeconomic circumstances. In particular, lectures and readings examine the vital roles played by theology, royal patronage, gift exchange, trade and workshop practices in the formulation of visual traditions. Age of Imperial Encounter: 19th-Century Art of the Middle East The 19th-century Middle East witnessed a flourishing of strange and hybrid architecture and visual culture that blended local traditions with global trends.

As local empires waned, European forces spread new models of elite culture. How did art of the 19th-century Middle East respond to shifts in political, social and cultural power? How do we define hybridity in art and can we break it free from Orientalist paradigms? Students acquire knowledge of 19th-century Islamic art and history, develop skills of critical looking, and gain an advanced vocabulary to evaluate visual culture under colonialism. A gateway to more advanced courses. These colloquia develop skills in expository writing and critical thinking in French. Materials include novels, films, essays and cultural documents.

Students may receive credit for only one section of Basis for the major. Prerequisite: or permission of the instructor. Often seen as spaces of regression and decay, the banlieues nevertheless produce vibrant cultural expressions that beg the question: Is the banlieue a mere suburb of French cultural life, or more like one of its centers? Civil war, violent extremism, sectarian polarization and the globalization of terrorism have devastated the country, leading to mass population displacement and the most severe humanitarian crisis since WWII.

Enrollment limited to 16 first-year students. How do literature and film about Zionism and Israel navigate and interpret tensions between sacred and secular; exile and homeland; language and identity; indigenous and colonial; war and peace? Intended for students with an interest in the relationships between history, politics, and narrative. There are several theories explaining women's low workforce participation. One points to the importance of family in Japanese society. There is a government policy that guarantees healthcare and pensions for spouses who make less than 1. There is also a large gap in wages between men and women. In , Japan had a gender wage gap of Japan has the third highest wage gap in the OECD.

The number of women in upper-level positions managers, CEOs , and politicians, and the like is rather low. Women only make up 3. Labor market segregation is associated with the gender wage gap. After World War II, the state deliberately made decisions to divide the labor pool by gender. This percentage only accounts for full-time workers and does not account for part-time female workers who may also be raising children. Therefore, there is distinctly a perception in the political workplace, but after the late s, people gradually started to embrace the importance of women needed in the political aspect.

An alternative theory, the Compensating Wage Differential hypothesis , states that women are not forced into these jobs per se, but instead that they pick and choose their occupations based on the benefits package that each provide. From work availability to health compensation, women may choose to have a lower wage to have certain job benefits. A competing theory from Mary Brinton suggests that the government is structured around devices that disallow women to find "good jobs. In , it was revealed that several university medical schools, Tokyo Medical University , Juntendo University , and Kitasato University , favored male applicants by using different passing marks for men and women.

This shows that Japan has a major gender gap in the medical field, and falls behind amongst all the G7 countries. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Article focusing on gender equality in Japan. Retrieved 23 January Middle Tennessee State University. Social Science Japan Journal, 12 1 , 23— Journal of Marriage and Family, 66 3 , — Japan: The Precarious Future. NYU Press. The gender division of labor and second births: Labor market institutions and fertility in Japan.

Demographic Research, 36, — Tsuda College. Care Management Journals. Sexual Violence and the Law in Japan. Melbourne University. University of Washington. Asian Journal of Social Science, 39 1 , 9— Thank you for your comment and compliment. Feel free to use my site as a reference. Your email address will not be published. You can register directly HERE Author Recent Posts. Chris Smit. Chris is passionate about Cultural Differences. While doing this he had the fortunate opportunity to hold lectures, workshops, and consulting projects on this subject World Wide. It has made him understand his own culture much better and appreciate the differences around the world. Latest posts by Chris Smit see all. August He has been Justin Grove on April at Chris Smit on Hi Justin, Thank you for your comment.

Hope it makes sense. Denise J. Romero on 3. Hi Chris, Your article is extremely helpful, thank you.

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