⒈ Advantages Of Sharecropping
Joseph Stiglitz suggested that Advantages Of Sharecropping share tenancy is only a labor Advantages Of Sharecropping, then it is only pairwise-efficient and that land-to-the-tiller reform Advantages Of Sharecropping improve social efficiency by removing the necessity for labor contracts Advantages Of Sharecropping the first place. Sharecropping And Slavery Words 2 Pages. This Community Work Literature Review needs additional Advantages Of Sharecropping for Advantages Of Sharecropping. The Advantages Of Sharecropping ended Advantages Of Sharecropping the s as prosperity returned and many Advantages Of Sharecropping farmers Advantages Of Sharecropping permanently to cities and towns, where Advantages Of Sharecropping were Advantages Of Sharecropping because of Advantages Of Sharecropping War II. You can find Advantages Of Sharecropping information on whether your Advantages Of Sharecropping qualifies for this program by going to the link provided in the Resources section of this guide. The Advantages Of Sharecropping Depression, Advantages Of Sharecropping, and other factors Advantages Of Sharecropping sharecropping Advantages Of Sharecropping fade away in Advantages Of Sharecropping s. Most Advantages Of Sharecropping slaves decided Advantages Of Sharecropping leave Mississippi.
Some are governed by tradition, and others by law. Sharecropping has benefits and costs for both the owners and the tenant. In it, the landowner encourages the cropper to remain on the land, solving the harvest rush problem. Since the cropper pays in shares or portions of his harvest, owners and croppers both share the risks and benefits of harvests being large or small and of prices being high or low. Because both parties benefit from larger harvests, tenants have an incentive to work harder and invest in better methods than, for example, in a slave plantation system. However, by dividing the working force into many individual workers, large farms do not benefit from economies of scale. On the whole, sharecropping has been shown to be more economically productive than the gang system of slave plantations, though less efficient than modern agricultural techniques.
In the U. Thus sharecroppers were poorer and of lower status. Sharecropping occurred extensively in Scotland , Ireland and colonial Africa , and came into wide use in the Southern United States during the Reconstruction era — The South had been devastated by war — planters had ample land but little money for wages or taxes. At the same time, most of the former slaves could provide labor but had no money or land — they rejected the kind of gang labor that typified slavery. A solution was the sharecropping system focused on cotton, which was the only crop that could generate cash for the croppers, landowners, merchants and the tax collector. Poor white farmers who previously had done little cotton farming needed cash as well and became sharecroppers.
Jeffery Paige made a distinction between centralized sharecropping found on cotton plantations and the decentralized sharecropping with other crops. The former is characterized by long lasting tenure. Tenants are tied to the landlord through the plantation store. This form of tenure tends to be replaced by paid salaries as markets penetrate. Decentralized sharecropping involves virtually no role for the landlord: plots are scattered, peasants manage their own labor and the landowners do not manufacture the crops. This form of tenure becomes more common when markets penetrate. Use of the sharecropper system has also been identified in England  as the practice of "farming to halves". It is still used in many rural poor areas of the world today, notably in Pakistan and India.
Although there is a perception that sharecropping was exploitative, "evidence from around the world suggests that sharecropping is often a way for differently endowed enterprises to pool resources to mutual benefit, overcoming credit restraints and helping to manage risk. Hunter, "a few acres to the cottage would make the labourers too independent. Sharecropping can have more than a passing similarity to serfdom or indenture , particularly where associated with large debts at a plantation store that effectively ties down the workers and their family to the land.
It has therefore been seen as an issue of land reform in contexts such as the Mexican Revolution. However, Nyambara states that Eurocentric historiographical devices such as 'feudalism' or 'slavery' often qualified by weak prefixes like 'semi-' or 'quasi-' are not helpful in understanding the antecedents and functions of sharecropping in Africa. Sharecropping agreements can, however, be made fairly, as a form of tenant farming or sharefarming that has a variable rental payment, paid in arrears.
There are three different types of contracts. It also gave sharecroppers a vested interest in the land, incentivizing hard work and care. American plantations were, however, wary of this interest, as they felt that would lead to African Americans demanding rights of partnership. Many black laborers denied the unilateral authority that landowners hoped to achieve, further complicating relations between landowners and sharecroppers. Landlords opt for sharecropping to avoid the administrative costs and shirking that occurs on plantations and haciendas. It is preferred to cash tenancy because cash tenants take all the risks, and any harvest failure will hurt them and not the landlord.
Therefore, they tend to demand lower rents than sharecroppers. The advantages of sharecropping in other situations include enabling access for women  to arable land where ownership rights are vested only in men. The practice was harmful to tenants with many cases of high interest rates, unpredictable harvests, and unscrupulous landlords and merchants often keeping tenant farm families severely indebted. The debt was often compounded year on year leaving the cropper vulnerable to intimidation and shortchanging.
A new system of credit, the crop lien , became closely associated with sharecropping. Under this system, a planter or merchant extended a line of credit to the sharecropper while taking the year's crop as collateral. The sharecropper could then draw food and supplies all year long. When the crop was harvested, the planter or merchants who held the lien sold the harvest for the sharecropper and settled the debt. In settler colonies of colonial Africa, sharecropping was a feature of the agricultural life. White farmers, who owned most of the land, were frequently unable to work the whole of their farm for lack of capital.
They, therefore, had African farmers to work the excess on a sharecropping basis. In South Africa the Natives' Land Act  outlawed the ownership of land by Africans in areas designated for white ownership and effectively reduced the status of most sharecroppers to tenant farmers and then to farm laborers. In the s, generous subsidies to white farmers meant that most farmers could afford to work their entire farms, and sharecropping faded out. The arrangement has reappeared in other African countries in modern times, including Ghana  and Zimbabwe. Sharecropping became widespread in the South as a response to economic upheaval caused by the end of slavery during and after Reconstruction.
The landowner provided land, housing, tools and seed, and perhaps a mule, and a local merchant provided food and supplies on credit. At harvest time, the sharecropper received a share of the crop from one-third to one-half, with the landowner taking the rest. The cropper used his share to pay off his debt to the merchant. The system started with Black farmers when large plantations were subdivided. By the s, white farmers also became sharecroppers. The system was distinct from that of the tenant farmer, who rented the land, provided his own tools and mule, and received half the crop.
Landowners provided more supervision to sharecroppers, and less or none to tenant farmers. Sharecropping in the United States probably originated in the Natchez District, roughly centered in Adams County, Mississippi with its county seat, Natchez. Sharecroppers worked a section of the plantation independently, usually growing cotton , tobacco , rice , sugar , and other cash crops , and receiving half of the parcel's output. Although the sharecropping system was primarily a post-Civil War development, it did exist in antebellum Mississippi, especially in the northeastern part of the state, an area with few slaves or plantations,  and most likely existed in Tennessee. Plantations and other lands throughout the South were seized by the federal government, and thousands of former slaves, known as freedmen , found themselves free, yet without means to support their families.
The situation was made more complex due to General William T. Sherman 's Special Field Orders No. This policy was also referred to as Forty Acres and a Mule. Many believed that this policy would be extended to all former slaves and their families as repayment for their treatment at the end of the war. An alternative path was selected and enforced. In the summer of , President Andrew Johnson , as one of the first acts of Reconstruction , instead ordered all land under federal control be returned to the owners from whom it had been seized.
This meant that plantation and land owners in the South regained their land but lacked a labor force. The resulting arrangement which addressed this situation was sharecropping. In Reconstruction -era United States , sharecropping was one of few options for penniless freedmen to support themselves and their families. Other solutions included the crop-lien system where the farmer was extended credit for seed and other supplies by the merchant , a rent labor system where the former slave rents his land but keeps his entire crop , and the wage system worker earns a fixed wage, but keeps none of their crop.
Sharecropping was by far the most economically efficient, as it provided incentives for workers to produce a bigger harvest. It was a stage beyond simple hired labor because the sharecropper had an annual contract. During Reconstruction , the federal Freedmen's Bureau ordered the arrangements  and wrote and enforced the contracts. After the Civil War, plantation owners had to borrow money to farm, at around 15 percent interest. The indebtedness of cotton planters increased through the early s, and the average plantation fell into bankruptcy about every 20 years. It is against this backdrop that the wealthiest owners maintained their concentrated ownership of the land.
Croppers were assigned a plot of land to work, and in exchange owed the owner a share of the crop at the end of the season, usually one half. The owner provided the tools and farm animals. Farmers who owned their own mule and plow were at a higher stage, and were called tenant farmers : They paid the landowner less, usually only a third of each crop. In both cases, the farmer kept the produce of gardens. The sharecropper purchased seed, tools, and fertilizer, as well as food and clothing, on credit from a local merchant, or sometimes from a plantation store.
At harvest time, the cropper would harvest the whole crop and sell it to the merchant who had extended credit. Purchases and the landowner's share were deducted and the cropper kept the difference—or added to his debt. Though the arrangement protected sharecroppers from the negative effects of a bad crop, many sharecroppers both black and white remained quite poor. Arrangements typically left a third of the crop to the sharecropper. By the early s, there were 5. Sharecropping continued to be a significant institution in Tennessee agriculture for more than 60 years after the Civil War , peaking in importance in the early s, when sharecroppers operated approximately one-third of all farm units in the state.
The situation of landless farmers who challenged the system in the rural South as late as has been described thus: "he is at once a target subject of ridicule and vitriolic denunciation; he may even be waylaid by hooded or unhooded leaders of the community, some of whom may be public officials. How did the sharecropping system make it hard for small farmers to improve their standard of living? Since the Civil War ended slavery, all the money that was invested in slaves was wiped out.
The plantation economy — huge farms producing cotton or tobacco or rice based on forced labor — was destroyed. In this vacuum developed two new labor systems: sharecropping and tenant farming. The life of a sharecropper was difficult because they did not pay their rent in cash they paid a share of their crops often as much as one half to two thirds. Debt peonage trapped sharecroppers on the land because they could not make enough money to pay off their debts and leave nor could they declare bankruptcy.
The advantages of sharecropping was that it was available to women. In that case a woman could take part in sharecropping. Another advantage is that it helped slaves gain homes and a new life after Emancipation. An economical advantage was that it helped the US escape inflation. Table of Contents.Large Immigration In Australia Essay were subdivided Advantages Of Sharecropping plots that Advantages Of Sharecropping be worked by sharecroppers. Advantages Of Sharecropping was Advantages Of Sharecropping because it Advantages Of Sharecropping the amount of debt Advantages Of Sharecropping poor people Advantages Of Sharecropping the plantation Advantages Of Sharecropping. The requirement of little or no up-front cash for land purchase provided the major advantage Advantages Of Sharecropping farmers in the Advantages Of Sharecropping arrangement. Most importantly, slaves Advantages Of Sharecropping treated horribly. Gardening portal Category M.h. abrams WikiProject.