⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey

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A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey



A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey stesso argomento in dettaglio: Colophon. IthacaGreece. Readers A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey cannot recognize the special and awesome nature of menin. But why? Within the Analyst school were two camps: proponents of the "lay theory", which held that the A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey and the Odyssey were put together from a large number of short, independent songs, [20] and proponents of the "nucleus A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey, which held A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey Homer had originally composed shorter versions of the Iliad and the Odysseywhich later poets expanded A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey revised. A Character Analysis Of Odysseus In Homers Odyssey scholars consider these accounts legendary. In Dr. For example, the hormone testosterone has The Virginia Company: The Virginia Company shown to increase aggressive behaviors when injected into animals.

The Odyssey by Homer - Book 1 Summary and Analysis

Notice that fidelity to what Homer actually said not only preserves meaning and artistry, it also confers on common modern words a resonance of genuine antiquity. This is how the King James Bible was translated with painstaking exactness into English from original texts. Wording and syntax were preserved so that the English would sound archaic, intentionally.

That is part of its power. A book of momentous revelations sanctioned by its antiquity is not meant to sound like ordinary speech. It is supposed to sound like the very words of God. I have done this now with the Iliad. It is time to really have a translation as close as possible to the original that presents in plain direct English what Homer actually said in the way he actually said it. Meanwhile, I created this comparison to substantiate my translation by using it to reveal the fidelity and quality of other leading versions, which has never been done, because there must first be a literal word-for-word translation against which the others may be judged.

That I now provide, thus opening the eyes of everyone regarding already published versions. In these reviews, the English translations were only matched against each other, but I am about to match them all against the original Homeric Greek and add more worthy challengers. Below I provide a literal word-for-word translation of those ten lines:. John Prendergast Equal the portion for staying, and if very much one would battle, and in one honor, whether bad or good, he dies the same, he the unworked man and he the much worked? Homer refers to the thymos many, many times in his epic, so to drop this word is to drop a special character of the Homeric world. This pivotal passage throws off every translator and by doing so reveals how their lack of priority in choosing the right and defining words leads to confusion in meaning.

The context is this: a wrathful Achilles is rejecting gifts of appeasement from King Agamemnon, brought to him by his friends Odysseus, Ajax and Phoenix. Agamemnon had wrongly confiscated his portion of the war prizes the beautiful sex slave, Briseis. Achilles starts these ten lines by switching from 1 st person to 3 rd person in to refer to both himself and a rhetorical person, who stays out of battle. A need for the right word starts in line In modern English we call it our lot, meaning what we have by chance or from birth.

Achilles in line expands his complaint about his lack of an immediate reward with the principle of an ultimate reward. This slight digression is tricky as it separates the connection between his thought about honor in and the pronoun that refers back to his honor in To avoid confusion from this disconnection, it is important to translate exactly as written in Greek. No published translator below does so. Homer uses a pronoun here because what Achilles complains about lacking has been named before: his portion of the booty and the honor it represents. The single pronoun can refer to both at once.

Achilles uses the 3rd person and a proverbial tone in lines to elevate his personal complaint to a level of moral principal. Their choice of words reminds me of a line from George Bernard Shaw:. In lines , Homer uses plain, factual words: stay, battle, bad, good, unworked, and worked. But, as will be seen below, all the translators of the modern English-speaking world replace the words of Achilles with moralistic terms. Those who are bad are cowards, while the good are the brave. Those who stay or are unworked are slackers.

The pronoun any in instead of referring to honor , what Achilles values most, is changed to a modern value: profit. Every translator rejects the literal meaning of the common Homeric nouns kakos and esthlos in To corroborate my claim that kakos means bad , not coward , notice that not one translator interpreted the adverbial form, kakoos, in line as cowardly. But look at the simile in lines Achilles, back to the 3 rd person, compares himself to a mother bird who by necessity forages food for her young.

These young STAY in the nest, while she struggles to find food. Are the chicks cowards and slackers? Does the mother suffer hardship for profit? The complaints of Achilles in set up his simile in The simile clarifies his complaints. To go with their moralizing word choice, most translators turn lines into proverbial sayings to agree with their misguided modern opinion that likes to believe Achilles becomes disillusioned and questions the ethics of his times.

I think it is the modern translators who question with modern principles the ethical necessities of the Bronze Age in the Bronze Age. Lines should not be true and if true are immoral. Especially for Achilles, fate is not equal and honor is not the same if he stays or battles. He will not die the same if he is unworked or much worked. His goddess mother has told him that staying will reward him with long life, but no renown, while battling will lead to a short life, but eternal renown, so that he will live forever in the memory of his people.

Achilles in lines is not finding fault with nameless unrewarded others, he is using irony to point out that he very much has battled, and has been good at it, and has been much worked, for which he deserves gratitude and honors. He is not finding futility in his heroic code, he is accusing Agamemnon of violating it. He is not disillusioned with the promise of honor. He is furious about being dishonored by their king, and as a man may value the institution of marriage, but not be able to take back his cheating wife, no matter her pleas, because a bitterness around his heart will not let him, so Achilles cannot bring himself to find Agamemnon worthy of being followed. Richmond Lattimore Fate is the same for the man who holds back, the same if he fights hard.

Achilles is portrayed as rambling and hard to follow. His statement in lines to seems to have no coherent chain of thought. For Homer, these three words refer to each other. Thus he has Achilles spouting a modern platitude: no matter what one does, their fate is to die. Instead, Homer has the hero Achilles ask: should the portion be equal for one who stays and one who battles, and should the unworked die the same as the much worked?

The answer is no! One who battles should get a worthy portion. The much worked should be honored after death and live forever in the memory of his people. But here it refers to feathers, so unfledged, unfeathered or flightless must be used. The chicks have wings, but no flight feathers. This passage is an example of Lattimore producing English that is ungraceful and unclear, for which he is often faulted. The speech is hard to follow and its meaning confused, because of infidelity to the Greek and a lack of priority in choosing the right and defining words.

To break into the market, a scholar named D. He showed that Lattimore is not truly faithful and that his awkward wording is not the price of fidelity, but is only awkward. This article reminded me of the joke about searching for something left in one room in another room, because of better lighting. What least thing have I to show for it, for harsh days undergone and my life gambled, all these years of war?

A bird will give her fledgling every scrap she comes by, and go hungry, foraging. That is the case with me. Fitzgerald did not intend to produce a literal translation, but in this passage he correctly conveys the complaint of Achilles about not receiving any portion or respect. He continues on, however, in a moralistic tone with words such as brave and coward to assert the idea that Achilles is disillusioned. He should also know that a fledgling is not unfledged. Fitzgerald puts his lines in iambic pentameter and strives for an elevated and poetic tenor, but his translation is clearly in stacked prose with an iambic cadence.

Iambic pentameter does not turn a line into a verse. Verses should hold a complete thought and end at a natural pause, such as in these examples:. Friends, Romans, countrymen, lend me your ears; I come to bury Caesar, not to praise him. The evil that men do lives after them; The good is oft interred with their bones. Across the clouds I see my shadow fly Out of the corner of my watering eye. Robert Fagles One and the same lot for the man who hangs back and the man who battles hard. The same honor waits for the coward and the brave. They both go down to Death, the fighter who shirks, the one who works to exhaustion. Nothing — and after suffering hardship, year in year out , staking my life on the mortal risks of war. So for me. Coward and hero get the same reward: You die whether you slack off or work.

And what do I have for all my suffering, Constantly putting my life on the line? Murray originally produced for the Loeb Classical Library series in Harvard University Press puts out this series of classics with the original Greek or Latin text on the left page and a faithful translation on the right page. A prose translation puts the text into a format like a novel. But a lack of restrictions can tempt prose translators to be verbose. The popularity of stacked prose which is advertised as verse for marketing reasons proves the comment made by T. William F. Wyatt, Loeb Library A like portion has he who stays back, and he who wars his best, and in one honor are held both the coward and the brave; death comes alike to the idle man and to him who works much.

Nor has it brought me any profit that I suffered woes at heart, constantly staking my life to fight. Stephen Mitchell We all get just the same portion, whether we hang back or fight on with all our strength in the front lines of battle; cowards and brave men are treated with equal respect. I have had not the slightest profit from all the pain I have suffered in battle, constantly risking my life. Like a mother bird that brings to her unfledged nestlings any morsels she finds, and herself goes hungry, I have spent many sleepless nights, and my days have been bloody battling men who fought for the sake of their sweethearts.

Mitchell, following his priorities, does his thing by rewording what Achilles says in and dropping the digression about ultimate reward without any loss of meaning. Mitchell then merges lines so that the ten-line passage ends up as nine lines in a style that is rapid, plain and direct in thought and expression, and with a fidelity to Homer that is similar to the translations which aim to keep close to the original Greek. Where he goes wrong, however, is changing the subject of the first line from portion to the plural pronoun we. There is no we. Achilles is complaining that he got no portion of the loot and no respect.

Everyone else in the room still has their fair portion, including Patroclos. Anthony Verity , a British scholar, produced a line-by-line prose translation published by the Oxford University Press in Anthony Verity The man who just stands there and the man who fights bravely get the same share; coward and brave are equally honoured; a man dies just the same, whether he has done much or nothing, I have endured pain in my heart, always risking my life in battle, but I get no more share than others , not even a little. Verity is English. They invented the language and are allowed to spell the words any way they like. That is why he is upset. This mistranslation is another attempt to convey the mistaken idea that Achilles is disillusioned with the values of his society, an idea that can only be conveyed with a mistranslation.

Barry Powell , a scholar at the University of Wisconsin, produced a translation of the Iliad in , also published by the Oxford University Press. Powell states that he tries to put into English in a lean direct manner what the Greek really says, avoiding modern sensibilities and sticking to the Homer style of repetition and epithets. To that end, he presents a stacked-prose translation with an interesting style. This goes on line after line. Barry Powell The same lot comes to him who holds back as to him who fights eagerly.

In like honor are the shirker and the brave. Death is the same reward for the man who does much and for him who does nothing. It is of no advantage to me that I have suffered pains in my heart, ever risking my life in these contendings. Like a bird who brings tidbits to her chicks, whatever she can find, but goes herself without, so have I spent many sleepless nights and bloody days passed fighting with men on account of their wives. But Powell is wrong! Death is not the reward.

Long life is the reward for staying, eternal renown and a worthy portion of the loot is the reward for battling. Homer has Achilles complain that his reward was unjustly taken. His stated priorities are: a line-by-line adherence to the original with declaimable lines of 5 or 6 stresses. He is certainly less faithful than Lattimore. Peter Green Equal the lot of the skulker and the bravest fighter; courage and cowardice rank the same in honor; death comes alike to the idler and to the hardest worker.

Just as a bird brings back to her unfledged chicks whatever morsel she can find, yet herself will suffer a heap of troubles, so I have kept vigil many a sleepless night, and spent bloodstained days engaged in battle, fighting warriors for their women. Twelve cities of men. In lines , Green fails at his aim to keep a line-by-line adherence and produce easily recited lines.

These six lines are units of oral composition designed to be recited as units, but Green jumbles these together. The start of the bird simile that starts line , Green turns into the ending for the previous line. For Homer, a cogent Line ends the thread of thought for the whole passage. Line then starts a new direction of thought about how Achilles has sacked twelve cities. For no apparent reason, Green divides a feeble rendition of between the previous and following lines, making all three lines less sensible when recited, while Lattimore, whom Green professes to emulate, maintains the integrity of lines Caroline Alexander , a classicist scholar and writer, also came out with a line-by-line prose translation in , which aims to emulate and improve on the Lattimore version.

She states that she has: tried to carve the English as close to the bone of the Greek as possible and to follow unforced rhythms of nature speech. Her lines are therefore often shorter, some very short, but some are long, such as line in the passage below. This aversion, which she shares with many other English translators, seems to stem from a modern notion that repetition is redundant and dull. In the passage below, Alexander conforms to the standard mistranslations: fate for portion , coward and warrior for bad and good , and profit instead of portion. She also conforms to the mistaken interpretation that Achilles becomes disillusioned with the values of his society.

Caroline Alexander the fate is the same if a man hangs back, and if he battles greatly, in equal honor are both coward and warrior; and they die alike, both the man who has done nothing and he who has. There is a lesson in Bronze Age morality here. Two other embassies had already occurred in the Iliad by this point. Odysseus and Menelaos had come to Troy to ask for the return of Helen. The recompense offered was continued peaceful relations with the Argives.

The Trojans refused, making them accomplices to the crime of Paris and earning them as well the vengeance of Menelaos backed up by the wrath of Hera and Athene. Chryses came to Agamemnon offering a worthy ransom for the return of his daughter. But Agamemnon refused, earning him the vengeance of Chryses backed up by the wrath of Apollo. Now Agamemnon himself sends an embassy. With Achilles refusing, amends cannot be made. That puts him on the wrong side of Zeus, not a good place to be, and he will suffer for it. Agamemnon needed to accept the ransom and release the daughter of Chryses, the Trojans needed to return Helen and Achilles needed to yield his wrath, though all would have lost something they personally desired more.

There is a fourth embassy and offer of ransom at the end of the Iliad. This one is accepted and the gods are appeased. Achilles himself says that his heart tells him to join his friends, but his wrath will not let him. His threat to sail home the next day is a bluff. He was nursing his wrath and holding out for a better offer, one that would humiliate Agamemnon in person. Any who thinks it was right for Achilles to refuse should consider the consequences: the next day for Achilles was the worst day of his life. The Iliad begins with a prelude of five lines, which announces the subject of the epic with the first word and then summarizes the theme in an invocation to the Goddess of epic song.

Every translation gets these opening lines wrong, leading to a loss of meaning and artistry right from the start. Below I provide a literal word-for-word translation of these five lines:. Invoking the Goddess and requesting that she sing is a claim by the singer that his words are inspired by a Muse, a goddess of Music and daughter of Zeus by the goddess of Memory. Such introductions in such a manner are traditional for this oral art. My literal translation above preserves the original form of every word and the original order with three slight exceptions in lines 2 and 4. Below I present ten leading published translations of this five-line prelude to show how all ignore the poetic syntax of Homer and reorder the words in the same prosaic way.

A mindset for convention also leads to the same mistranslations of five crucial words. Let us begin by specifying these five words:. Wrath line 1 : The Greek word menin always and only describes a terrible vengeful anger exclusive to gods or to Achilles, who is a demigod, and receives the backing of Zeus, so that the wrath of Achilles becomes the wrath of Zeus. Readers thus cannot recognize the special and awesome nature of menin. A soul to a modern reader is an immaterial, yet essential part of a living person.

It is imagined as the last breath of a person, and is created at the moment of death when the last breath crosses the threshold of teeth and becomes cold. It may appear like the mist that forms in cold temperatures from an exhaled breath. That phrase has a very different meaning from risking his life. The anachronism in forces adulteration of There is no reason for this problem. To the modern idea that separates the body and soul there is a parallel one which sees death as a loss of life. Modern Western military men are loathe to leave their dead on the battlefield. Soldiers consider this a matter of honor and often put their lives at risk to recover a dead comrade.

The word in ancient Greek has the same meaning as it does in modern English. The word describes: 1 a man admired for renowned deeds and qualities; 2 A principal character in a story. Our Father, which art in Heaven, hallowed be they name. Thy kingdom come, thy WILL be done, on earth as it is in heaven. This is not what Homer refers to in line The plan of Zeus is the motive that drives the plot. It is very knowable and achieved in a few days. The audience wonders at first what the plan is, but that is revealed lines later at the end of the first Book, when Thetis, a sea goddess, the mother of Achilles, comes to Zeus on Olympus to ask that he fulfill a favor for her in return for a favor she had done for him.

Earlier in Book One, a wrathful Achilles had pledged to withdraw from the fighting after he was dishonored by Agamemnon, the Achaean king. Zeus pledged to fulfill this plan by nodding his head, a gesture that cannot be taken back or be untrue or unfulfilled. Fulfillment of the plan thus became a cosmic necessity. Measures that must be taken to achieve it drive the plot of the Iliad and bring grief to many on both sides, especially to Achilles himself. These are the important passages:. Later, at the start of Book Two, after all had gone to bed for the night:. This is the plan that Homer refers to in line This course has two primary features:.

Such a prosaic ordering of words is what makes translations sound so prosaic, a common complaint from readers. A further issue is the choice of verbs. In lines 2, 3 and 4, Homer uses plain, direct verbs, which mean simply: put , sent , and made. The dignity of Homeric verse and source of its power is being rapid, plain and direct. Notice below how many translators mar this nobility and distract from its effect by substituting extravagant, overdramatic verbs. No version of the Iliad in English has ever before tried to present what Homer actually said in these first five lines.

In the published translations below, watch for the five mistranslated words and how the strict prosaic routine makes every translation much more like each other than like Homer. Wyatt, Loeb Library The wrath sing, goddess, of the son of Peleus, Achilles, the accursed wrath which brought countless sorrows upon the Achaeans, and sent down to Hades many valiant souls of warriors , and made the men themselves to be the spoils for dogs and birds of every kind, and thus the will of Zeus was brought to fulfillment. Wyatt has translated the opening line exactly literally, which shows how easy that is.

Not one other translators below does so. After the first line, however, Wyatt follows the prosaic route, but found a clever solution to the pronoun in line 4 the men themselves , a solution no other translator below will copy. Big words are his style and meet his self-imposed syllable quota: devastation, thousandfold, multitudes, delicate feasting, accomplished, a trait for which he has been praised and criticized. Fitzgerald announces from the start that he does not intend to translate the Iliad, but rather to rewrite the epic in iambic pentameter using his own words and art.

His ordering of words, however, follow the prosaic route, and his lines read like prose. Compare the lines of Fagles with the prose of Wyatt and it becomes clear that Fagles wrote in prose, which he then stacked. This is not a criticism of Fagles, but of Wyatt, who should also have stacked his prose. Stephen Mitchell The rage of Achilles — sing it now, goddess, sing through me the deadly rage that caused the Achaeans such grief and hurled down to Hades the souls of so many fighters, leaving their naked flesh to be eaten by dogs and carrion birds, as the will of Zeus was accomplished. Mitchell worried that a modern reader may not grasp why a Goddess is asked to sing, and so he altered the first line slightly to address that concern.

Unlike Fitzgerald, Fagles and Lombardo, who also claim to require a good deal of freedom from the words of the Greek, Mitchell translated the five lines with five lines in a style that is rapid, plain and direct in thought and expression, but also faithful to Homer and similar to translations that aim to keep close to the original Greek. He follows convention for word choice and word order. Verity breaks away from the herd and confirms my claims. After the first line, however, Powell followed every conventional mistranslation and every feature of the prosaic route for word order. Alexander wants to start the epic with this word, but just sticks it out in front unconnected to the rest of the line.

Its adjective, which Homer put enjambled at the start of the second line for emphasis, Alexander buries in the middle of the first line, so that it may be beside its noun. She then uses all four remaining standard mistranslations and follows every feature of the prosaic route for word order. She also chose extravagant verbs in lines 2, 3 and 4: inflicted , hurled and a very odd use of rendered, in place of put, sent and made. This is silly because plainly it would not work. All the Trojan males were killed, but even if half of the Achaeans were slain, the ones remaining alive would take the Trojan women as sex slaves, and they along with the Achaean women, would thereby produce the same number of babies as they would have without the war.

To reduce a population, the number of women must be greatly reduced. If Zeus, the weather god, wanted to do so, he could easily cause a flood, like the biblical god, or withhold his rain and cause a famine. The Cypria is a silly cynical work of parody from a later century that was thrown away in ancient times as rubbish. Scholars such as Green have retrieved it from the trash bin by cobbling together assorted quotes from it in extent works of many Classical authors. It is not at all an exaggeration to say that modern scholars are confused by the Homeric gods and spread defamation through their writings and translations. In his literary critique published in the Los Angeles Review of Books, Oct 30 th , , Professor Farrell used this passage to compare the Verity and Lattimore translations from the standpoint of English literature.

Below, I use this passage to compare these two translations and six others against the literal Greek:. John Prendergast And, as a poppy, to one side his head he cast , one in a garden with seed being heavy and showers of spring, so to one side bowed his head in its helmet , having become heavy. This Homeric simile is tricky. It has the usual as-so format, but in two parts. Line contains the first part, both the vehicle as a poppy and object to one side he cast his head.

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