❤❤❤ Circumstantial Relationship Between Attachment And Children

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Circumstantial Relationship Between Attachment And Children

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Parent Child Attachment Relationships

Delineation of polyamory and swinging has appeared in academic literature, [22] [23] [24] [25] popular media, [26] [27] and Web sites devoted respectively to polyamory [28] [29] and to swinging. A polyamorous style of open marriage emphasizes the expansion of loving relationships by developing emotional attachments to extramarital partners.

A swinging style of open marriage emphasizes physical gratification by engaging in recreational sex with extramarital partners. The preference for a polyamorous versus a swinging style of open marriage may depend on many psychological factors. One factor may be sociosexuality , [33] an individual's willingness to engage in sexual behavior without having emotional ties to the sex partner. Individuals who are very willing to engage in sexual behavior without emotional ties are said to have unrestricted sociosexuality. Individuals who are very unwilling to engage in sexual behavior without emotional ties are said to have restricted sociosexuality. Individuals can vary along a continuum from unrestricted to restricted sociosexuality. Couples with different styles of open marriage tend to self-segregate in order to find others who share similar philosophies and interests, which has likely contributed to the development of separate polyamory and swinging communities.

These offer informational resources and support, even if a given couple in an open marriage cannot see themselves joining either community. Some couples may not have a strong preference for either style of open marriage, feeling equally at home either community. The partners within a couple may differ in their respective preferences. One partner may prefer a polyamorous style of open marriage and participate in the Polyamory community, while the other partner may prefer a swinging style of open marriage and participate in the swinging community.

Variations in couple preferences and individual preferences thus can result in overlap between the polyamory and swinging communities. Some critics object to open marriages on the ground that open marriages violate religious principles. For example, open marriages contradict traditional Christian doctrine. Open marriages also violate the prohibition against adultery in the Ten Commandments. The definition of sexual immorality in Christianity includes the practices of open marriage and therefore it is considered an immutable reason for a dissolution of marriage. The Jewish religion hold similar values as Christianity in these matters. Muslims or Islamic teachings however allows for polygynous marriages albeit for the male partner only.

Islam prohibits this practice for the female partner. The perceived validity of these objections depends entirely on individual faith. Arguments about faith and rationality lie outside the scope of this article. Generally, non-monogamous people tend not to be very religious. A review observed that, across the various studies, most swingers approximately two-thirds claimed to have no religious affiliation. Surveys show consistently high disapproval of extramarital sex. Hunt mentions three general-population surveys conducted in the s in which large majorities disapproved of extramarital sex under any conditions. Widmer, Treas, and Newcomb surveyed over 33, people in 24 nations and found 85 percent of people believed extramarital sex was "always" or "nearly always" wrong.

A few studies have shown more direct disapproval of open marriage. In a national study of several hundred women and men, Hunt reported that around 75 percent of women and over 60 percent of men agreed with the statement "Mate-swapping is wrong. Engaging in sex with a greater number of partners increases risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases.

These concerns do not apply to open marriage alone, which would affect only 1 to 6 percent of the married population. The risk of sexually transmitted diseases can be greatly reduced by practicing safer sex. However, the percentage of people in open marriages who practice safer sex remains disputed. Anecdotal observations range from claiming no one at a swing event practiced safer sex to claiming everyone at an event practiced safer sex. The two most frequently mentioned changes were being more selective with whom they swung and practicing safer sex e. Finally, one third said that they had not changed any of their habits, and, of these respondents, more than a third said nothing, not even AIDS, would get them to change. Many people are not aware they are infected, and no outwards signs of infection may be visible.

One psychological study suggests people may not be particularly good at detecting lies about HIV status. Several authors consider open marriages to be psychologically damaging. They claim sexual non-monogamy proves too difficult for most couples to manage, and their relationships suffer as a consequence. This disrupts couples' sense of security in their relationships and interferes with their sense of intimacy. Consequently, these authors view open marriage as a "failed" lifestyle. Other studies have found that couples report high levels of satisfaction and enjoy long-lasting open marriages.

These couples may continue to view open marriage as a valid lifestyle for others, but not for themselves. Strong social disapproval of open marriage may lead to a loss of psychological and health benefits. People in open marriages may hide their lifestyle from family, friends, and colleagues. Openly non-monogamous married and cohabiting couples often feel they are thought of as bizarre or immoral by the rest of their world. They have to work out their sex lives in opposition to the rest of society. They may have an understanding with each other, but they usually keep it secret from family, friends, and people at work.

Keeping their lifestyles secret reduces the amount of social support available to people in open marriages. In , Blumstein and Schwartz [5] determined that out of 3, married men, had an agreement with their spouses allowing extramarital sex; of these, 24 percent men actually engaged in extramarital sex during the previous year, and overall 6 percent had been actively involved in open marriages during the previous year. The number is only slightly less for women, where of 3, married women, had an agreement with their spouses allowing extramarital sex, and 22 percent or women actually engaged in extramarital sex during the previous year. This means about 5 percent of married women were actively involved in open marriages during the previous year.

Those estimates are slightly higher than those from other researchers. Following the publication of Open Marriage , the popular media expressed a belief that open marriages were on the rise. However, Hunt concluded the incidence of extramarital sex had remained about the same for many years:. Among wives under 25, however, there is a very large increase, but even this has only brought the incidence of extramarital behavior for these young women close to—but not yet on par with—the incidence of extramarital behavior among under husbands. Hunt, , page [7]. Hunt attributed the mistaken impression of increasing open marriages to a barrage of books, articles, and television shows dealing with the topic.

He also notes that speculative comments about increases in open marriage would sometimes be repeated often enough that people cited them as evidence. Nearly twenty years later , in a national study of sexual behavior, Janus and Janus likewise denied that open marriages were on the rise, and suggested the number of open marriages may have declined:. Despite popularization in a book of that title in the early s, open marriage has never become as prevalent as nonconsensual extramarital activities, and its popularity seems to be waning even further today. A large amount of media interest can mislead people into thinking the incidence of open marriage is on the rise.

Conversely, media attention given to the marriage movement can mislead people into thinking the incidence of open marriage is declining. Weiss notes that "there is no scientific basis for concluding that these patterns increased in popularity earlier or that they have become less common in the s and s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the book, see Open Marriage book. This article has multiple issues. Please help to improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. Learn how and when to remove these template messages. This article needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. Polygamy Polyandry Polygyny. Cicisbeo Concubinage Courtesan Mistress. Emotions and feelings. The neutrality of this section is disputed. Until recently, most of Tchaikovsky's biographers have recounted the details of Tchaikovsky's marriage in a superficial and tendentious manner, always with a bias in favour of the composer. Antonina Milyukova 's own recollections, which present her side of the story, have been labelled the product of a rash and insane woman, and therefore ignored [47].

Recent archival studies have made it possible to clarify several key details relating to Antonina 's origins, and the history of the couple's acquaintance, marriage, further relationship and her life after their separation [48]. After the composer's death, Antonina received a pension of rubles a month, which Tchaikovsky left her in his will.

Antonina 's further fate was tragic: soon after Tchaikovsky's death she began to display signs of an emotional disorder a mania of persecution. By the disease had worsened and Antonina moved to Kronstadt, where she sought spiritual support and a cure from the renowned miracle-worker Father John of Kronstadt. For some unknown reason the priest refused to help her. After her relative recovery, in February , she was released from the hospital, only to return there in June of with a diagnosis of paranoia chronica.

A month later, with the help of Tchaikovsky's brother Anatoly , she was transferred to a more comfortable psychiatric hospital outside the city—the Charitable Home for the Emotionally Disturbed at Udelnaya. The pension of her late husband served as payment for her room and board. Antonina spent the last ten years of her life at this institution more as a "resident" than a patient.

The home provided her with medical supervision in her old age, with attentive care by the personnel, and full living conveniences. Her grave has not survived. At the end of a second woman entered Tchaikovsky's life. This was Nadezhda von Meck , the widow of a wealthy railway magnate. She had heard and admired some of Tchaikovsky's music, and when she found out that he was encountering financial problems, she began to commission pieces from him. Both agreed on the one condition—that they should never meet.

Their strange relationship, expressed through over letters, was to last for almost fourteen years. They only met twice, by accident, and hurried off without greeting each other. When Mrs von Meck learned what had happened with Tchaikovsky during his abortive marriage, she agreed on his request to arrange for him to receive a regular allowance of rubles. This way the composer resolved his permanent financial crisis, and Mrs von Meck 's money allowed him to dedicate himself to creative work. Tchaikovsky's relationship with Nadezhda von Meck , despite their obvious eccentricities, occasional frustrations and their gradual although on the surface almost imperceptible deterioration, can be argued to have been among the most gratifying experiences of the composer's life.

Their silent understanding never to meet endowed their "epistolary friendship" with a particular "platonic" colouring, which was deeply emotional, and at times almost ecstatic. In the case of Mrs von Meck the erotic component was very significant even at the conscious level , although always neutralized through her emphatic sentimentalism. This proved satisfactory to both parties, providing a safe outlet for their feelings by ruling out any obvious manifestation of sexual love. In her correspondence with the composer, Mrs von Meck displayed an exceptional degree of tact, sympathy and understanding in the light of Tchaikovsky's psychological idiosyncrasies, and the specific characteristics of their epoch.

There are reasons to believe that she may have been aware of Tchaikovsky's homosexuality from the very start of their friendship, even if in a somewhat vague and inexplicit fashion, in keeping with the general Victorian attitudes towards the subject. At the end of and the beginning of , Tchaikovsky and his brother Anatoly later replaced by Modest proceeded with their European tour through Switzerland, France, Italy and Austria, hoping to put the whole disastrous business of Tchaikovsky's marriage firmly behind them. Iosif Kotek arrived in Vienna at the end of November, and spent some time with the brothers travelling. By January Tchaikovsky had finished his Fourth Symphony , the first of his mature symphonic works, which he dedicated secretly to Nadezhda von Meck.

The other major work which occupied him during the period of his ill-fated marriage was the opera Yevgeny Onegin. At first the opera made a modest impression on the audience, and it took several years to achieve the public acclaim it deserved. One other masterpiece also emerged from this period of self-exile: the Violin Concerto , written in Switzerland. This was inspired by Iosif Kotek , but for opportunistic reasons Tchaikovsky initially offered the dedication to the virtuoso Leopold Auer.

However, it seemed that Tchaikovsky's new concerto would suffer the same fate as his First Piano Concerto four years earlier, when Auer claimed it was far too difficult and refused to play it. In an up-and-coming violinist, Adolph Brodsky , gave the first performance in Vienna , at which the legendary critic Eduard Hanslick, in his newspaper review of the concert, declared that the music "gave off a bad smell".

Just like the Piano Concerto No. In April , Tchaikovsky returned to Russia, depressed by the prospect of resuming his teaching duties, and short of inspiration. Nevertheless, he finished some smaller piano pieces, including the popular Children's Album. Returning to Moscow after his usual summer visit to Kamenka , and also after a visit to Mrs von Meck 's estate at Brailov , he took a decisive step. He resigned his teaching job at the Conservatory, and shortly thereafter set off on his travels once again. He was to spend the next few years constantly on the move, avoiding Moscow and Saint Petersburg as much as possible. First he travelled to Florence , then to Paris , and then to Clarens in Switzerland, where he started to work on another opera— The Maid of Orleans , which did not prove to be one of his greatest successes.

Back in Russia by the autumn, he began a Second Piano Concerto. Later he travelled to Rome , where he composed the Italian Capriccio. Tchaikovsky then returned to his homeland, where he spent much of in the country. There he completed the Serenade for String Orchestra , and the piece most often associated with his name—the overture The Year , a commemoration of the historic Russian defeat of Napoleon's army. Early in , still in Rome , Tchaikovsky learned that the seriously-ill Nikolay Rubinstein had gone to Paris for treatment, and had died there soon afterwards. He rushed to Paris to pay his last respects to Rubinstein , and in December he began working on a musical memorial, the Piano Trio dedicated "to the memory of a great artist" Op.

By now Tchaikovsky's music was being performed more often, thanks in a large degree to the efforts of the late Nikolay Rubinstein , who played and conducted a Tchaikovsky programme at the Paris Exhibition of , and premiered many of his new compositions in Moscow , though rarely with total success. The main work of —83 was the opera Mazepa , based upon Pushkin 's epic poem Poltava. During the course of its composition his enthusiasm flagged considerably. Perhaps it is a decline in my powers, or have I become more severe in my self-judgment? Mazepa was performed in both Moscow and Saint Petersburg in February , but Tchaikovsky left for Europe without attending the Saint Petersburg premiere, since the opera was not very cordially received in Moscow.

He had hardly spent three weeks in the French capital before he was summoned back to Russia to appear before Alexander III and receive an official decoration—the Order of Saint Vladimir 4th class. By the beginning of the composer was feeling the need to cease his restless wandering and settle down. He found a manor house in Maydanovo , near Klin , in the countryside outside Moscow. This residence also had the advantage of being on the direct route between Moscow and Saint Petersburg.

Soon he settled down to a regular routine: reading, walking in the forest, working in the mornings and afternoons, and playing cards or duets with friends in the evenings. He wrote to his brother: "I am contented, cheerful and at peace" [51]. He was occupied at this time with the revision of Vakula the Smith , which was to be re-issued under the new title of Cherevichki —and also with a new opera based on Ippolit Shpazhinsky's play The Enchantress , the story about an innkeeper's daughter who is courted by two princes father and son , with predictably disastrous consequences [52]. In May Tchaikovsky began to fulfil a promise made to Balakirev to compose a symphonic work on the subject of Lord Byron 's Manfred. This task cost Tchaikovsky immense effort and was finished only in September All the autumn he continued to work on The Enchantress while travelling for a few days or weeks at a time to Moscow , Saint Petersburg and Kamenka.

At the end of this month he decided to visit his brothers— Ippolit in Taganrog and Anatoly in Tiflis Tbilisi in the Caucasus. The concert was followed by a supper and the presentation of a silver wreath. It had a far-reaching influence on Tchaikovsky's future, for it was then that he made his first successful attempt at conducting. The work had a great success, perhaps due to the composer's presence, but it remained in the repertory for only two seasons.

Now Tchaikovsky began to think of venturing on a concert tour abroad. He spent most of the spring at Maydanovo working on the orchestration of The Enchantress. In Borzhom he received a telegram from his old friend Nikolay Kondratyev , who was dying in Aachen [53]. Tchaikovsky conducted again but, in spite of a personal ovation, the opera left audiences cold. On the seventh night, the work was sung to a half-empty house, and was quickly withdrawn. At the end of December he set out on his first European concert tour as a conductor, which included Leipzig , Berlin , Prague , Hamburg , Paris and London.

He returned home only in April, but this time to a new house in the village of Frolovskoye which, like Maydanovo , is located near the small town of Klin. There he began a new symphony, inspired by the death of his friend Nikolay Kondratyev. At the end of November Tchaikovsky travelled to Prague , where he conducted a successful performance of Yevgeny Onegin. In December he retired to Frolovskoye for six weeks in order to compose a ballet— The Sleeping Beauty —based on a French fairy tale and commissioned by the directors of the Saint Petersburg Theatres.

Here he found himself in the same hotel as Brahms , and felt gratified to hear that the concert performance of his Fifth Symphony had pleased the latter, with the exception of the finale. Before going to London at the end of March, as scheduled, Tchaikovsky spent a few weeks in Paris. The local music society again celebrated his visit with concerts from his works. The summer was spent as usual in his country home, and his time was occupied by the completion and orchestration of The Sleeping Beauty.

Tchaikovsky spent the greater part of the autumn travelling between Saint Petersburg and Moscow , conducting concerts of his own works, those of Anton Rubinstein on the occasion of the latter's Jubilee Festival , and rehearsing his new ballet at the Mariinsky Theatre. The day before Alexander III had expressed his approval of the ballet at a gala rehearsal attended by the imperial court. Tchaikovsky composed the opera with an enthusiasm almost without parallel in his career.

The entire score was written in a fit of creative frenzy that lasted just forty-four days. In the process, as we learn from Tchaikovsky's letters, the composer came to identify with its characters and its action. Elsewhere Tchaikovsky wrote: "I worked on [the opera] with unbelievable ardour and excitement, and actually experienced everything that happens in the story, at one time even fearing the appearance of the old dame's ghost, and I hope that my authorial tumult and absorption will echo in the hearts of the audience" [55].

While he never doubted the quality of his art, the composer was genuinely modest and sensitive to unfavourable feedback. Furthermore, he tended to deprecate his own work and lose interest in it upon completion. It was not so with The Queen of Spades. Despite the scepticism of many, he adamantly held to the belief that the music of this opera belonged among the finest in the world. The judgment of posterity has proved him right. Tchaikovsky had spent the summer of in Frolovskoye , preoccupied with the finishing touches for his opera, and composing the sextet Souvenir de Florence.

In the last ten years the pathos and enthusiasm so characteristic of its initial stages, had gradually diminished in Tchaikovsky's correspondence with Nadezhda von Meck. Her financial assistance would still continue for more than a decade, but eventually they so accommodated themselves to one another that they could treat the whole situation as a matter of fact—quietly and more prosaically.

Nevertheless, the intellectual level of their correspondence remained high, and ranged from theoretical discussions to intimate confessions. During September , however, he received a letter from Mrs von Meck informing him that she was on the brink of ruin, and therefore unable to continue either his allowance or their correspondence. The suddenness of this news wounded him deeply, and left him depressed for some time. In the meantime, however, Tchaikovsky accepted an invitation to conduct his own works in America on the occasion of the grand opening of Carnegie Hall in New York. The success of this concert, which consisted entirely of his own works, was marred when he read news of his sister Aleksandra 's death in a French newspaper.

Nevertheless, he decided to go ahead with his tour of America. During the voyage, and throughout his American visit, he kept a diary of his experiences. Tchaikovsky conducted six concerts in which his own works were performed: four in New York , one at Baltimore and one at Philadelphia. He also visited Niagara Falls. The composer was greatly impressed and heartened by the warmth and hospitality of his American hosts and by the enthusiastic reception given to his music.

Back home, Tchaikovsky returned to the composition of the ballet The Nutcracker , based on E. In addition, Tchaikovsky orchestrated a symphonic ballad The Voyevoda Op. While the opera enjoyed tremendous success, Tchaikovsky developed a strong dislike for The Voyevoda after its performance, and actually torn up the score, which was reconstructed only after his death. The end of found Tchaikovsky embarking on a new concert tour, this time calling at Kiev and Warsaw before proceeding on to Germany. From Warsaw he went to Hamburg by way of Berlin , in order to be present at a new production of Yevgeny Onegin , conducted by Gustav Mahler.

In his later years, Tchaikovsky was often overcome by feelings of homesickness that afflicted him whenever he left Russia, and now he even abandoned a concert for which he had been engaged in Holland — going instead to Paris before heading home. This time he found a bigger house on the outskirts of the town itself, right next to the Petersburg highway but surrounded by fields and the woods. In May, Tchaikovsky began work on a Symphony in E-flat major , but the sketches he produced to this end—which were in some state of completion by October—did not satisfy him. Almost a year later they were used as the basis for the one-movement Third Piano Concerto , and the Andante and Finale for piano and orchestra, completed by Taneyev after the composer's death.

However, upon arriving he learned that the performance was to be given in a restaurant by a scratch orchestra, and promptly took offence and left. His old friend from the Moscow Conservatory, the Austrian pianist Anton Door , who had not seen him from the late s, not surprisingly found him looking older than his years. From Vienna the composer travelled to be a guest of the German pianist Sophie Menter at Itter Castle, in the Tyrol, and thereupon to Prague in order to attend their first performance of The Queen of Spades. The Emperor was cordial with respect to both pieces, but it seems that the music of Iolanta did not appeal to the public.

The Nutcracker proved more fortunate, with most critics approving of its music and choreography. He wrote to his brother Nikolay : "The past rose up so vividly before me that I seemed to breathe the air of Votkinsk and hear our mother 's voice" [56]. Tchaikovsky spent the last days of in Paris and in Brussels. He conducted concerts of his own works, supervised a production of The Queen of Spades , and attended several banquets in his honour. He worked so vigorously, that in the week after his arrival, the first movement of the symphony was already complete, and the rest was clearly outlined in his head.

A great crowd gathered at the train station to greet the famous composer. The response to the concert itself three days later, at which Tchaikovsky conducted his Second Symphony , The Tempest , and the overture The Year , surpassed all expectations: the hurrahs and bravos seemed to continue on without end, and as soon as the famous man appeared in the doorway he was lifted up and carried to his coach. He finished the finale first and only then took up the second movement. Within five days he completed the sketches of the entire work. In May he travelled to Saint Petersburg , Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod , where he visited his brother Anatoly , now the deputy governor of that city.

During his visits to the capital, Tchaikovsky's meetings with Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov and with a younger generation of composers, such as Aleksandr Glazunov and Anatoly Lyadov , grew more frequent and productive. The London Philharmonic Society intended to give two concerts at which all the foreign composers receiving their honorary degrees at Cambridge would conduct their own compositions. Tchaikovsky directed the first English performance of Francesca da Rimini and then attended a "gala dinner and still more gala receptions".

The next day saw the ceremony awarding him the honorary doctorate. A few days later he travelled to the Tyrol to spend a week with Sophie Menter and the prominent Russian pianist Vasily Sapelnikov. While Tchaikovsky was abroad he had received a continuing flood of bad news from Moscow and Saint Petersburg : his old Conservatory and society friends Karl Albrecht and Konstantin Shilovsky had both passed away, in late June Vladimir Shilovsky also died, and he was led to expect similar news concerning Aleksey Apukhtin and professor Nikolay Zverev.

Upon his return he visited his brother Anatoly and family in Nizhny Novgorod. In September he worked on his Third Piano Concerto , and started to consider the possibility of writing a new opera. His engagement calendar for the forthcoming concert season was extremely full. In addition he was considering invitations from Odessa , Kharkov , Warsaw , Frankfurt am Main , and elsewhere. He planned to leave in a few days, in order to be present at a concert at the Russian Music Society in Moscow , and he was temporarily billeted in the apartment of his brother Modest , who shared it with their nephew Bob Davydov.

This apartment, located on the corner of Malaya Morskaya and Gorokhovaya Streets, had been rented just a few weeks before Tchaikovsky's arrival. The entire first week of Tchaikovsky's stay in the capital was occupied by orchestral rehearsals, and his free time was taken up in helping his brother and nephew to settle into their new apartment. The days following the premiere were spent visiting relatives and friends, conducting business negotiations and correspondence, and attending theatres and restaurants. By morning it had worsened, but it was taken for the composer's usual "indisposition", which as a rule passed quickly.

But this time his condition continued to worsen and self-medication failed to produce any positive results. Towards evening Modest Tchaikovsky was obliged to summon a doctor, the family friend Vasily Bertenson. Without making a definite diagnosis, but convinced that his patient's condition was extremely dangerous with symptoms of constant diarrhoea and vomiting, extreme weakness, chest and abdominal pains , the doctor turned for help to his more experienced elder brother, the renowned Petersburg physician Lev Bertenson [58].

Upon his arrival Lev Bertenson immediately diagnosed Asiatic cholera, in its severe or algid stage. By this time about 11 pm the life of the patient was in immediate danger: he began to experience spasms, his head and extremities turned dark blue, and his temperature fell. Throughout the night the doctor undertook energetic measures, such as the constant massaging of his patient's body by several persons at a time, as well as injections of musk, camphor and other substances recommended by the scientific knowledge of the day. It was on this morning that the police were informed of the composer's illness. An official announcement of Tchaikovsky's infection with cholera appeared in Saint Petersburg 's newspapers the following day.

Vasily Bertenson , who left Saint Petersburg and participated no further in the treatment of Tchaikovsky, was replaced by two other doctors, Aleksandr Zander and Nikolay Mamonov [59]. They took turns at the bed of the patient between visits from the doctor-in-charge, Lev Bertenson. The latter was concerned with the development of the disease as Tchaikovsky's kidneys had now ceased to function, but hesitated to use the one method considered effective—namely, immersing the patient in a hot bath.

The composer and his family shared a superstitious fear of this treatment, stemming from the death of Tchaikovsky's mother from cholera precisely as she was taking such a bath. The inactivity of his kidneys uraemia resulted in the inevitable gradual poisoning of his blood by elements of urine trapped in his organism. Furthermore, his intestines became paralyzed: the continuing diarrhoea became uncontrollable, and the patient felt weaker still. But even this belated treatment did not have any cardinal effect. Throughout the day Tchaikovsky repeatedly lost consciousness and succumbed to delirium; towards the evening his pulse began to weaken and his breathing became inhibited. After ten o'clock in the evening the patient's state was declared hopeless.

Almost without attaining consciousness, as a result of oedema of the lungs and a weakening of cardiac activity, the composer passed away at fifteen minutes after three o'clock on the morning on 25 October 6 November according to the Western calendar. Present during his final moments were his brothers Modest and Nikolay Tchaikovsky , his nephew Vladimir Davydov and the doctor Nikolay Mamonov. At the apartment where he died, with measures having been taken for disinfection, the body of the deceased lay in state and was made available for homage. Ten years later Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov , who had attended this service, would entirely forget about all the extra precautions at Modest 's apartment and about the constant disinfection of the composer's face, and recalled in his confused memoirs that he found it odd that the cellist Verzbilovich and others were allowed to kiss Tchaikovsky's body.

Throughout the day the flow of visitors gradually increased, and two memorial services were held at the apartment. After nine o'clock, at the insistence of health officials, the coffin was closed and was not opened for the following two days. During this time hundreds of people came to bid farewell to the composer, dozens of wreaths were laid, and several more memorial services were given. The papers published reports on Tchaikovsky's illness, interviews with doctors, relatives and friends of the deceased, and the texts of numerous commiserating telegrams.

The acute public reaction to Tchaikovsky's death found its primary expression in accusations levelled against the doctors who had treated him. The very fact that he had been taken ill with cholera although quite a rare condition for members of the privileged class , in a city that at the time was at the centre of a cholera epidemic, did not elicit surprise. The only question was where Tchaikovsky could have become infected—at Leiner's restaurant or at home—since according to various testimonies he had drunk unboiled water at both places.

But this question turned out to be of secondary importance, even considering the growing criticism of restaurant procedures which permitted the use of unboiled water. The composer's own fateful recklessness was self-evident, and he was not alone in ignoring elementary hygienic measures. The treatment of the patient was another matter entirely. Here all responsibility was to be shouldered by specific doctors, and they would inevitably become the targets of waves of outraged attacks over the sudden demise of the world-famous composer.

Lev Bertenson and his assistants were accused of incompetence specifically a lack of practical experience in treating cholera, the belated use of the bath, ignorance of modern treatments, etc. Modest Tchaikovsky came to the doctors' defence, publishing two explanations [60]. In the first he described in great detail the progression of the illness; in the second he declared that everything possible had been done to save his brother and the family of the deceased had no grievance whatsoever against the doctors who treated him. Moreover, Modest expressed profound gratitude for their "sincere and irreproachably thorough treatment" of the composer's illness. Stunned by the recent tragedy, the public was especially sensitive to the "funereal" moods of several passages in the symphony.

The slow, requiem-like Adagio finale now struck many as a premonition of death, and made an enormous impression. It is not surprising that many listeners including some of the journalists writing about the concert for various newspapers gained the impression that Tchaikovsky had written indeed a "requiem" for himself. Unlike a point, which is static and directionless, a line is capable of expressing movement, direction, and growth. Movement Direction As visible forms, lines may vary in weight and character. A line can also be implied by two points. Carried further, the simple repetition of similar elements, if continuous enough, can define a line with significant textural qualities. Lines can vary in weight, contour, and texture.

An important characteristic of a straight line is its direction. A horizontal line can represent stability, repose, or the plane upon which we stand or move. In contrast to this, a vertical line can express a state of equilibrium with the force of gravity. Equilibrium Diagonal lines, deviations from the horizontal and the Stability vertical, can be seen as rising or falling. In either case, they imply movement and are visually active and dynamic.

A curved line represents movement deflected by lateral forces. Curved lines tend to express gentle movement. Depending on their orientation, they can be uplifting or represent solidity and attachment to the earth. Small curves can express playfulness, energy, or patterns of biological growth. Without lines, we would not be able to define shape—that characteristic by which we generally recognize things. Lines describe the edges of shape and separate it from the space around it. In addition, the contours of these lines imbue the shape with their expressive qualities. Lines defining shapes In addition to describing shape, lines can articulate the edges of planes and the corners of volumes. These lines can be expressed either by the absence of material— reveals and recessed joints—or by the application of trim.

Lines can also be used to create texture and patterns on the surfaces of forms. This structural role of linear elements can be seen at the scale of architecture and interior space, and in furnishings. Within the design process itself, lines are used as regulating devices to express relationships and establish patterns among design elements. We often use lines to regulate relationships in drawing and design. Conceptually, a plane has two dimensions—width and length—but no depth. Shape is the primary characteristic of a plane.

It is described by the contour of the lines defining the edges of the plane. In addition to shape, planar forms have significant surface qualities of material, color, texture, and pattern. Floor, wall, and ceiling or roof planes serve to enclose and define three-dimensional volumes of space. Their specific visual characteristics and their relationships in space determine the form and character of the space they define. Within these spaces, furnishings and other interior design elements can also be seen to consist of planar forms. It may refer to the contour of a line, the outline of a plane, or the boundary of a three- dimensional mass. In each case, shape is defined by the specific configuration of the lines or planes that separates a form from its background or surrounding space.

Natural shapes There are several broad categories of shapes. Natural shapes represent the images and forms of our natural world. These shapes may be abstracted, usually through a process of simplification, and still retain the essential characteristics of their natural sources. Nonobjective shapes make no obvious reference to a Nonobjective shapes specific object or to a particular subject matter. Some nonobjective shapes may result from a process, such as calligraphy, and carry meaning as symbols. Others may be geometric and elicit responses based on their purely visual qualities. Geometric shapes dominate the built environment of both architecture and interior deign. There are two separate Geometric shapes and distinct types of geometric shapes—rectilinear and curvilinear.

In their most regular form, curvilinear shapes are circular, while rectilinear shapes include the series of polygons that can be inscribed within a circle. Of these, the most significant geometric shapes are the circle, the triangle, and the square. Extended into the third dimension, these primary shapes generate the sphere, the cylinder, the cone, the pyramid, and the cube. It represents unity, continuity, and economy of form. A circular shape is normally stable and self-centering in its environment.

When associated with other lines and shapes, however, a circle can appear to have motion. Other curvilinear lines and shapes can be seen to be fragments or combinations of circular shapes. Whether regular or irregular, curvilinear shapes are capable of expressing softness of form, fluidity of movement, or the nature of biological growth. Triangular shapes and patterns are often used in structural systems, since their configuration cannot be altered without bending or breaking one of their sides. From a purely visual point of view, a triangular shape is perceived as stable when resting on one of its sides. When tipped to stand on one of its points, however, the triangular shape becomes dynamic. It can exist in a precarious state of balance or imply motion, as it tends to fall over onto one of its sides.

The dynamic quality of a triangular shape is also due to the angular relationships of its three sides. Because these angles can vary, triangles are more flexible than squares and rectangles. In addition, triangles can be conveniently combined to form any number of square, rectangular, and other polygonal shapes. The equality of its four sides and its four right angles contributes to its regularity and visual clarity. A square shape has no preferred or dominant direction. Like the triangle, the square is a stable, tranquil figure when resting on one of its sides, but becomes dynamic when standing on one of its corners.

All other rectangles can be considered to be variations of the square with the addition of width or length. While the clarity and stability of rectangular shapes can lead to visual monotony, variety can be introduced by varying their size, proportion, color, texture, placement, or orientation. Texture is most often used to describe the relative smoothness or roughness of a surface. It can also be used to describe the characteristic surface qualities of familiar materials, such as the roughness of stone, the grain of wood, and the weave of a fabric.

There are two basic types of texture. Tactile texture is real and can be felt by touch; visual texture is seen by the eye. All tactile textures provide visual texture as well. Texture refers to the three-dimensional structure of a surface. Visual texture, on the other hand, may be illusory or real. Our senses of sight and touch are closely intertwined. As our eyes read the visual texture of a surface, we often respond to its apparent tactile quality without actually touching it. We base these physical reactions to the textural qualities of surfaces on previous associations with similar materials.

Texture is intertwined with our senses of sight and touch. All materials have some degree of texture, but the finer the scale of a textural pattern is, the smoother it will appear to be. Even coarse textures, when seen from a distance, can appear to be relatively smooth. The relative scale of a texture can affect the apparent shape and position of a plane in space. Coarse textures can make a plane appear closer, reduce its scale, and increase its visual weight.

In general, textures tend to fill the space in which they exist visually. Direct light falling across a surface with physical texture will enhance its visual texture. Diffused lighting deemphasizes physical texture and can even obscure its three-dimensional structure. Smooth, shiny surfaces reflect light brilliantly, appear sharply in focus, and attract our attention. Surfaces with a matte or medium-rough texture absorb and diffuse light unevenly and, therefore, appear less bright than similarly colored but smoother surfaces. Very rough surfaces, when illuminated with direct lighting, cast Lighting direction affects our reading of texture.

Shiny surfaces reflect. Matte surfaces diffuse. A texture seen against a uniformly smooth background will appear more obvious than when placed in juxtaposition with a similar texture. When seen against a coarser background, the texture will appear to be finer and reduced in scale. Finally, texture is a factor in the maintenance of the materials and surfaces of a space. Smooth surfaces show dirt and wear but are relatively easy to clean, while rough surfaces may conceal dirt but may also be more difficult to maintain. Contrast affects the apparent strength or subtlety of adjacent textures. Texture can also result from the manner in which materials are assembled in construction. Pattern is the decorative design or ornamentation of a surface that is almost always Motif Pattern based on the repetition of a motif—a distinctive and recurring shape, form, or color in a design.

The repetitive nature of a pattern often gives the ornamented surface a textural quality as well. When the elements that create a pattern become so small that they lose their individual identity and blend together, they become more texture than pattern. A pattern may be integral or applied. An integral pattern results from the intrinsic nature of a material and the way it is processed, fabricated, or assembled. An applied pattern is added to a surface after it is fabricated or built. A pattern reduced in scale becomes texture.

How we combine and compose differing textures is just as important as the composition of color and light, and should suit the desired character and use of a space. The scale of a textural pattern should be related to the scale of a space and its major surfaces, as well as to Minimal texture Textured the size of secondary elements within the space. Since texture tends to visually fill space, any textures used in a small room should be subtle or used sparingly. In a large room, texture can be used to reduce the scale of the space or to define a more intimate area within it. A room with little textural variation can be bland. Combinations of hard and soft, even and uneven, and shiny and dull textures can be used to create variety and interest.

In the selection and distribution of textures, Texture filling space Competing textures moderation should be exercised and attention paid to their ordering and sequence. Harmony among contrasting textures can be sustained if they share a common trait, such as degree of light reflectance or visual weight. Conceptually and in reality, a volume exists in three dimensions. Form is the term we use to describe the contour and overall structure of a volume. The specific form of a volume is determined by the shapes and interrelationships of the lines and planes that describe its boundaries. As the three-dimensional element of architectural and interior design, a volume can be either a solid space displaced by the mass of a building or building element or a void space contained and defined by wall, floor, and ceiling or roof planes.

It is important to perceive this duality of containment versus displacement, especially when reading orthographic plans, elevations, and sections. Visible forms give space dimension, scale, color, and texture, while space reveals the forms. This symbiotic relationship between form and space can be seen at several scales in interior design. We are surrounded by color in our environmental settings. The colors we attribute to objects find their source in the light that illuminates and reveals form and space. Without light, color does not exist. The science of physics deals with color as a property of light. Within the visible spectrum of light, color is determined by wavelength. Starting at the longest wavelength with red, we proceed through the spectrum of orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet to arrive at the shortest visible wavelengths.

When these colored lights are present in a light source in approximately equal quantities, they combine to produce white light—light that is apparently colorless. The surface of the object absorbs es. Our eyes inat apprehend the color of the reflected light as the color of dom the object. Some light sources—such as some electric lamps or light reflected off a colored wall—may not be well balanced and thus lack part of the spectrum. This lack of certain colors will make a surface illuminated by such light appear to lack those colors.

Red Which wavelengths or bands of light are absorbed and which are reflected as object color is determined by the pigmentation of a surface. A red surface appears Violet Yellow red because it absorbs most of the blue and green light falling on it and reflects the red part of the spectrum; a blue surface absorbs the reds. Similarly, a black surface White absorbs the entire spectrum; a white surface reflects all of it. Blue Green A surface has the natural pigmentation of its material. This coloration can be altered with the application of paints, stains, or dyes that contain color pigments.

While Cyan colored light is additive in nature, color pigments are Colored lights combine by additive mixing. Each pigment absorbs certain proportions of white light. When pigments are mixed, their absorptions combine to subtract various colors of the spectrum. The colors that remain determine the hue, value, and intensity of the mixed pigment. Red It is important for interior designers to remember that Magenta the colors they see on their computer screens are colored Yellow light, while colors in printed materials and samples are Black pigments. For accuracy, they should rely on physical color samples viewed in the light in which they will be used.

Blue Green Cyan Pigment colors combine by subtractive mixing. Value The degree of lightness or darkness of a color in relation to white and black. Saturation The brilliance or dullness of a color; this depends on the amount of hue in a color. All of these attributes of color are interrelated. Each principal hue has a normal value. Pure yellow, for example, is lighter in value than pure blue. If white, black, or a complementary hue is added to a color to lighten or darken its value, its saturation will be diminished as well. It is difficult to adjust one attribute of a color without simultaneously altering the other two. Red A number of color systems attempt to organize colors and their attributes into a visible order.

Red nge -ora -vio The primary hues are red, yellow, and blue. The tertiary hues are red-orange, let Ora yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, blue-violet, and red-violet. The system arranges colors into three orderly scales of uniform visual steps, according to their attributes of hue, value, and chroma intensity. The Munsell system is based on five principal hues and five intermediate hues. These ten major hues are arranged horizontally in a circle. Extending vertically through the center of the hue circle Munsell Color Wheel is a scale of neutral gray values, graded in ten equal visual steps from black to white.

Radiating out from the vertical scale of values are equal steps of chroma, or intensity. Chro Although the ability to accurately communicate the hue, value, and intensity of a specific color without an actual sample is important in science, commerce, and industry, color names and notations cannot adequately describe Value scale the visual sensation of color. Actual color samples, seen in the light in which they will be used, are essential in the design of a color scheme. Interior designers often space represents the maximum must indicate a color to be used uniformly in paints, saturation of the spectral textiles, graphic design materials, and other media.

Although cumbersome to use, CIE standards are specified by most perceivable by the human eye. American furniture manufacturers. CIE Chromaticity Diagram Other available tools are electronic color analyzers, which identify color data from samples, and color viewing lights, which simulate varied lighting conditions. Electronic color analysis is commonly used for paint matching. Color may be mixed at the point of sale to match almost any color sample. In mixing the pigments of paints and dyes, each of the attributes of color can be altered. The hue of a color can be changed by mixing it with other hues. When neighboring or analogous hues on the color ry nta wheel are mixed, harmonious and closely related hues are pl eme Analogous Com created. In contrast to this, mixing complementary hues, those hues directly opposite each other on the color wheel, produces neutral hues.

The value of a color can be raised by adding white and lowered by adding black. A normally high-value color, such as yellow, is capable of more shades than tints, while a low-value color, such a red, is able to have more tints than shades. The intensity of a color can be strengthened by adding more of the dominant hue. It can be lowered by mixing gray with the color or by adding to the color its complementary hue. Hues that are grayed or neutralized White in this manner are often called tones.

These factors are especially important to the interior designer, who must carefully consider how the colors of elements in an interior space interact and how they are rendered by the light illuminating them. Light of a particular hue, other than white, is rarely used Daylight Artificial light for general illumination. However, not all sources of what we consider white light are spectrally well balanced.

Incandescent bulbs cast a warm glow, while some fluorescents cast a cool light. Daylight, too, can be warm or cool, depending on the time of day and the direction from which it comes. Even the color of a large reflecting surface can alter the light within an interior space. Warm light tends to accentuate warm colors and neutralize cool hues, while cool light intensifies cool colors and weakens warm hues. If light is altered with a particular hue, it will raise the intensity of colors of that hue and neutralize colors of a complementary hue. Conditions affecting the rendition of colors in an interior space The apparent value of a color can also be altered by the amount of light used to illuminate it. However, high levels of illumination can also tend to make colors appear less saturated, or washed out.

The natural fluctuations of light in an interior setting can alter colors in subtle ways. A color may also look different depending on its angle to the viewer. It is always best to test colors in the environment in which they are to be viewed, under both daylight and nighttime conditions. The result is that the two colors are pushed farther apart in hue. Simultaneous contrast in hue is most easily perceived when two colors are fairly uniform in value. If one color is much lighter or darker than the other, the effects of contrasting values become more noticeable. A light color will tend to deepen a dark color, while a dark color will tend to brighten a light color.

Both black and white have a visible effect on colors brought into contact with them. Surrounding colors with black tends to make them richer and more vibrant, while outlining with white often has the opposite effect. A large area of white will reflect light onto adjacent colors, while thin white lines tend to spread and alter the hues they separate. Contrasting values alter perceived values. The effects of contrasting hues and values depend on areas large enough to be perceived as separate colors. If the areas are small and closely spaced, the eye does not have enough time to adjust to their differences and mixes the colors optically.

The effects of optical mixing are often used in the weaving of textiles to create an impression of many hues and values with a limited number of colored yarns or threads. Effect of outlining colors with white or black Optical mixing occurs when dots or strokes of colors merge to produce more blended hues. Colors are often divided into warm and cool categories. Reds, oranges, and yellows are considered to be warm colors that advance.

Blues, greens, and violets are considered cooler and tend to recede. Neutrals, such as grays and off-whites, may be either warm brownish or cool bluish. The following generalizations summarize some of these effects of color. Normal values of hues in Warm hues and high intensities are said to be visually standard color wheel active and stimulating, while cool hues and low intensities are more subdued and relaxing. Light values tend to be cheerful, middle values undemanding, and dark values somber. Bright, saturated colors and any strong contrasts attract our attention. Grayed hues and middle values are less forceful. Contrasting values, in particular, make us aware of shapes and forms.

Contrasting hues and saturations can also define shape, but if they are too similar in value, the definition they afford will be less Axis distinct. Light, warm colors tend to expand and increase the apparent size of an object, especially when seen against a dark background. When used on an enclosing plane of a space, light values, cool hues, and grayed colors appear to recede and increase apparent distance. They can therefore be used to enhance the spaciousness of a room and increase its apparent width, length, or ceiling height. Warm hues appear to advance. Dark values and saturated colors suggest nearness. These color generalizations have complex interrelationships. For example, although blue is considered cool and red warm, a vibrant electric blue may not strike us as cooler than a soft rose.

Our emotional reactions to color vary with our personal experiences and cultural associations. In addition, favored color combinations are subject to fashion trends, with certain color palettes closely tied to specific times or places. Some colors are simply in or out of fashion at Value Intensity a given time; others may be appropriate or inappropriate given a specific color scheme. The suitability of a color depends ultimately on how and where it is used and how it Hue fits into the palette of a color scheme. Manufacturers design color series for paints that suggest compatible color selections.

These series may be scientifically built on gradations of pigments; based on references to nature, fabrics, or other materials; or developed to reflect emotional, historic, or similar associations. If colors are like the notes of a musical scale, then color schemes are like musical chords, structuring color groups according to certain visual relationships among their attributes of hue, value, and intensity. The color schemes Monochromatic color schemes Analogous color schemes use two or shown here are based on the hue relationships within a vary the value of a single hue.

There are two broad categories of hue schemes, related and contrasting. Related hue schemes, based on either a single hue or a series of analogous hues, promote harmony and unity. Variety can be introduced by varying value and intensity, by including small amounts of other hues as accents, or by bringing shape, form, and texture into play. Complementary color schemes use Split complementary color schemes Contrasting hue schemes, based on complementary or two hues on opposite sides of the combine one hue with the two hues triadic color combinations, are inherently more rich and color wheel. Triadic color schemes use colors located Contrasting hue schemes are based at three equidistant points on the color on complementary or triadic color wheel.

In designing a color scheme, other color relationships must also be considered. The color triangle developed by Faber Birren illustrates how modified colors—tints, tones, and shades—may be related in a harmonious sequence. The triangle is based on the three basic elements: pure color, white, White, tint, and Black, shade, and and black. They combine to create the secondary forms pure color pure color of tint, shade, gray, and tone.

Any of the bold-line paths illustrated here define a harmonious sequence, since each involves a series of visually related elements. Ultimately, whether a color scheme is lively and exuberant or restful and quiet will depend on the chromatic and tonal values of the hues chosen. Large intervals between the colors and values will create lively contrasts and dramatic effects.

Small intervals will result in more subtle contrasts and patterns. The scheme must not only satisfy the purpose and use of the space but also take into account its architectural character. Decisions must be made regarding the major planes of an interior space and how color might be used to modify their apparent size, shape, scale, and distance. Which elements will form the background, middle ground, and foreground? Are there architectural or structural features that should be accentuated, or undesirable elements to be minimized? Usually, the largest surfaces of a room—its floor, walls, and ceiling—have the most neutral values. Against this background, secondary elements such as large pieces of furniture or area rugs can have greater chromatic intensity.

Finally, accent pieces, accessories, and other small-scale elements can have the strongest chroma for balance and to create interest. Neutral color schemes are the most flexible. For a more dramatic effect, the main areas of a room can be given the more intense values, while secondary elements have lesser intensity. Large areas of intense color should be used with caution, particularly in a small room. They reduce the apparent distance and can be visually demanding. Large areas of intense color can be both dramatic and visually demanding. Balance large neutral areas with smaller areas of stronger intensity.

It is generally best to use varying amounts of light and dark values with a range of middle values to serve as transitional tones. Avoid using equal amounts of light and dark unless a fragmented effect is desired. Typically, large areas of light value are offset by smaller areas of medium and dark values. This use of light values is particularly appropriate when the efficient use of available light is important. Dark color schemes can absorb much of the light within a space, resulting in a significant loss of illumination and an increase in energy use for lighting. Another way of distributing values is to follow the pattern of nature. In this tonal sequence, the floor plane has the darkest value, surrounding walls are in the middle to light range, and the ceiling is fairly light.

Of course, the distribution of values and their degree of contrast will also depend on the size, shape, and scale of the space. Because light values tend to recede while dark values advance, their placement can modify our perception of these spatial dimensions. This arrangement of elements in a space involves pattern making. No one single part or element in a space stands alone. In a design pattern, all of the parts, Proportion elements, or pieces depend on one another for their visual impact, function, and meaning. The visual relationships established among the interior design elements in a space are ordered by proportion, scale, balance, harmony, unity and variety, rhythm, and Scale emphasis. These design principles are not intended to be hard and fast rules, but rather guidelines to the possible ways design elements can be arranged into recognizable patterns.

Ultimately, we must learn to judge the appropriateness of a pattern, its visual role in a space, and its meaning to the users of the space. These Balance principles, however, can help develop and maintain a sense of visual order among the design elements of a space, while accommodating their intended use and function. This relationship may be one of magnitude, quantity, or degree. Magnitude The apparent size of an object is influenced by the Quantity relative sizes of other objects in its environment. Degree When dealing with forms in space, one must consider proportion in three dimensions. According to Euclid, an ancient Greek mathematician, a ratio refers to the quantitative comparison of two similar things, while proportion refers to the equality of ratios.

Perhaps the most familiar proportioning system is the golden section established by the ancient Greeks. It defines the unique relationship between two unequal parts of a whole in which the ratio between the smaller and greater parts is equal to the ratio between the greater part and the whole. The ratio between two consecutive terms approximates the golden section. It can be a useful design tool for promoting unity and harmony.

However, our perception of the physical dimensions of things is often imprecise. The foreshortening of perspective, viewing distance, or even cultural bias can distort our perception. The matter of proportion is primarily one of critical visual These forms vary significantly in their proportions. In this respect, significant differences in the relative dimensions of things are important. Ultimately, a proportion will appear to be correct for a given situation when we sense that neither too little nor too much of an element or characteristic is present. Pieces of furniture may differ significantly in their proportions. Thin Heavy Diagonals that are parallel or perpendicular to each other indicate that the rectangles they bisect have similar proportions.

Both proportion and scale deal with the relative sizes of things. If there is a difference, proportion pertains to the relationships between the parts of a composition, while scale refers specifically to the size of something, relative to some known standard or recognized constant. For example, we can say that a table is, according to the U. Customary System, 3 feet wide, 6 feet long, and 29 inches high. If we are familiar with this system and with objects of similar size, we can visualize how big the table is.

Using the International System of Units the metric system , the same table would measure mm wide, mm long, and mm high. Our bodies can serve as a system 14 mm t 9 6 fe of measurement. For example, the aforementioned table can appear to be Small scale in scale or out of scale with a room, depending on the relative size and proportions of the space. We can refer to something as being small scale if we are measuring it against other things that are generally much larger. Similarly, an object can be considered to be large scale if it is grouped with relatively small items, or if it appears to be larger than what is considered normal Large scale or average.

If the dimensions of an interior space or the sizes of elements within it make us feel small, we can say they lack human scale. If, on the other hand, the space does not dwarf us, or if the elements offer a comfortable fit with our dimensional requirements of reach, clearance, or movement, we can say they are human in scale. Most of the elements we use to ascertain human scale are those whose dimensions we have become accustomed to through contact and use. These include doorways, stairs, tables, counters, and various types of seating. These elements can be used to humanize a space that would otherwise lack human scale. Interior details near eye level can be used to bring the scale of an architectural space down to human size.

For example, a chair rail along a wall creates a visual line at roughly hand We can judge the scale of a space by the relative size of the interior elements height. Similarly, moderately scaled artwork and accessories within it. We often use doorways, windowsills, tables, and chairs to discern human scale because we have become accustomed to their dimensions. Interior elements can be related simultaneously to the whole space, to each other, and to those people who use the space.

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