① Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education

Thursday, July 08, 2021 8:29:31 AM

Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education



Certain virtues are also ascribed to certain crafts. The former is unstressed, and the latter is stressed without any diacritical mark. However, Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education few Diplom courses still prevail. Archived from the original on 31 Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education Subscribe to our Newsletter. Namespaces Article Talk. This AI system is also currently operating in various hospitals in China. Colleges ignore life's biggest questions, and we all pay the price". Ready to Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education

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Italy's benchmark profit on year-old government bonds, which is rising against prices, rose 1 percent from 9 basis points until the market closed on Friday. Italy's tourism industry, especially the Corona virus, is in danger of being shut down. The country attracts million tourists annually, almost equal to the number of domestic and foreign tourists. According to the Bank of Italy, in , foreign tourists spent 42 billion euros in Italy.

Guido Carrissi, who manages two hotels in Central Florence and looks forward to the start of the good season, says, he is facing a cancellation of one-on-one bookings. It would be really tough for them. The macroeconomic environment was already looking scary. Mr Alan Reynolds expects domestic demand to decline substantially in the first quarter of , but is particularly bad from an investment standpoint. It is being reported that investment conditions have worsened. Italy's exporters and manufacturers have been battling economic wars for the past two years due to trade tensions between the US and China and slowdown in Germany's car industry, while domestic demand was less than a decade ago. Mr Alan Reynolds said that now the shutdown and supply chain disruptions due to the Corona virus added further barriers to industrial production.

In order to prevent the eurozone's third largest economy from falling, Italy's exporters have gained importance in recent years. In the last three years, exports of Italy's products and services have more than tripled at the pace of the overall economy, and expanded slightly faster than Germany and France. Italy's exports of goods and services as a share of GDP increased to 31 percent in , up from 25 percent in Italy's long tradition of high-quality exports boosted its international credibility in the fields of luxury fashion and food, as well as industrial manufacturing.

However, they are particularly vulnerable to the domestic and global economic consequences of the disease. All right reserved behalf of content! Labels: coronavirus in italy , economy of italy today , italy coronavirus , italy coronavirus evolution , italy coronavirus news , Italy faces mounting economic damage from coronavirus , italy recent news , Itlay. Necessity is the mother of invention , when we face any problem, we need to find the solution and anti dot of it. And if the problem based on Disease or Virus, the basic think is diagnosed; the effected person really affected from the same problem or not, and this one become the more tensing when the Disease or Virus is spreading in seconds from person to person. The aim of Fahad Hussain spreads Education and information entire world without boundaries.

This AI system is also currently operating in various hospitals in China. This system only takes 20 seconds. I can determine this while humans are usually diagnosed with the disease. It usually takes 15 minutes, but sometimes it takes longer Because photos have to be analyzed. This system across China, thousands of certified cases have been trained through photos and data and less.

Alibaba's AI system is operating in at least a hundred medical centers. Algorithm Developers say the latest treatment guidelines in this system And recently published research reports have also been included, to her Chinese diagnosis of corona virus quickly and accurately. The pressure on hospitals is likely to drop. Immediate diagnosis by medical staff will also have more time to treat the infection.

Wuhan, China. With the outbreak of the Corona virus, it reached several countries. In China the virus infected more than 80, people, and more than 29 hundred. There were casualties; however, the number of people recovering has now increased to more than 47,, which is in process and so far in the world wide near to 1 lac people recover from this life killing virus.

Remember, Stay at Home and Be Save! Do Subscribe the YouTube Channel fahadhussaintutorial. The disease like the flu with symptoms like a cough, fever, and in additional severe cases, difficulty in breathing. Also, spread when they touch a surface or object which has already virus there, after the person touch their eye noise and month. Till now, Corona virus Cases: , Deaths 13, Recovered 95, Its continuously increasing day by day, and recovering ratio is very slow!!! I am pretty sure using this understanding and prevention, you can protect your self from this virus and others. Don't be panic, We need to fight with this virus not Fear! Fahad Hussain.

Labels: corona virus , coronavirus in pakistan , coronavirus in world , coronavirus recovery time , coronavirus symptoms , coronavirus symptoms in Urdu , coronavirus treatment , coronavirus update , covid 19 , report. Is Machine Learning similar to Data Mining. Today the user around the globe using different application which are based on Artificial Intelligence, and related smart machines.

Majority of them thinking both are same because almost different algorithm like Regression, Classification are exist in both. So, in this Article we are going to understand about the differences and scope of Machine learning and Data Mining Here we go! Unsupervised Learning is the field for unlabeled data for predication and clustering them using different types of clustering, Algorithm like SVM, RF etc The journey of Machine learning shows it is the collection statistical model base algorithm to make you machine smart in term of prediction and analysis.

ML is not a new technology, first introduced in till now a lot of modern algorithms make their place in ML domain. In simple word, in this process we are finding those data set which is invisible but inherited from actual data set that is accurate and useful for us after discovering. It is an iterative process of creating a predictive and descriptive model, by uncovering previously unknown trends and pattern in vast amounts of data in order to support decision making.

Also, DM applied in the limited area than machine learning because its domain big. Now it is time to compare them in term of working, performance and importance': 1. Voluntary work as a Computer Scientist, to explore the difficulties as simple words!!! Introduction to CSS:. Colors and animations are the dream of web designer to make web pages more attractive and colorful. It shows the display beauty of web pages. CSS is used to define styles for your web pages, including the design, layout and variations in display for different devices and screen sizes. But in this Article we are going to understand the working differences between CSS and SAAS, so, What is CSS Preprocessor, Actually, in these days of professional working in the webpages using of hexadecimal color name, bracket and related material very critical according to the demand, so the scientist come to ground to do solve this problem in the form of CSS preprocessor, it is a scripting language like JavaScript that capability to extends the CSS and then compile it into simple CSS.

Same above example convert into SCSS code:. Same above example convert in. Advantages over CSS:. After understand about the basic differences between them, we can say that SAAS provides better understanding and readability over CSS but for large data file because if you use it or less data file it become overwhelm for you. It provides learning curve and compatibility , feature of variable and holding the different data types value add on it more advantages over CSS by using SAAS we can nested the properties of CSS and easily handle the operator on it, also mixins which is custom functions that can accept parameters and will prevent useless repetitions.

Overall it the good choice for developer to make attractive and more powerful style sheet in the websites. Labels: CSS , css mixin , CSS VS SAAS , difference between css and saas , saas , saas tutorial , sass import css , sass software , scss compiler , scss tutorial for beginners , scss vs less , scss vs sass stackoverflow. Overview :. Storage of data, retrieving, sending and handling of it, going to become a big challenge of these days.

We need to understand first which storage platform is best according to our application performance at worst case as like algorithm. JSON and XML can be used to receive data from a browser and web server, where XML is the acronym of Extensible Markup Language which is human readable text software use for storing and transporting data without depend on hardware. When the data in text form and we need to exchange data between browser and a server JSON is good choice, at the working stage we can easily convert any javascript object in JSON, to send to browser and server.

For example the syntax of ASP. In the web services it is very helpful to transfer and receiving data with parsable form. Normally it is use in web base application to create file format common information formats with different web base or other programming languages such as java, C. Here is the Snippet which is showing the text base differences between them. JSON Parsing:. XML Parsing:. So here we are going to understand the very basic differences between them in easy words.

Syntax like HTML. Syntax like programming language JavaScript. Not easy to write than JSOM. Easy to write than XML. No capability to store data into variable. Multi-state agreements ensure that basic requirements are universally met by all state school systems. Thus, all children are required to attend one type of school five or six days a week from the age of 6 to the age of A pupil may change schools in the case of exceptionally good or exceptionally poor ability. Graduation certificates from one state are recognized by all the other states. Qualified teachers are able to apply for posts in any of the states. In after much public debate about Germany's perceived low international ranking in Programme for International Student Assessment PISA , there has been a trend towards a less ideological discussion on how to develop schools.

These are some of the new trends:. Teachers are employed by the Ministry of Education for the state and usually have a job for life after a certain period verbeamtet which, however, is not comparable in timeframe nor competitiveness to the typical tenure track, e. This practice depends on the state and is currently changing. A parents' council is elected to voice the parents' views to the school's administration.

A team of school presidents is also elected by the pupils each year, whose main purpose is organizing school parties, sports tournaments and the like for their fellow students. The local town is responsible for the school building and employs the janitorial and secretarial staff. For an average school of — students, there may be two janitors and one secretary.

School administration is the responsibility of the teachers, who receive a reduction in their teaching hours if they participate. Church and state are separated in Germany. Compulsory school prayers and compulsory attendance at religious services at state schools are against the constitution. It is expected, though, to stand politely for the school prayer even if one does not pray along.

They are often run by city or town administrations, churches, or registered societies, many of which follow a certain educational approach as represented, e. Forest kindergartens are well established. Attending a Kindergarten is neither mandatory nor free of charge, but can be partly or wholly funded, depending on the local authority and the income of the parents. All caretakers in Kita or Kindergarten must have a three-year qualified education, or be under special supervision during training. These nurses are supported and supervised by local authorities.

Both systems are handled differently in each German state. The Schulkindergarten is a type of Vorschule. During the German Empire, children were able to pass directly into secondary education after attending a privately run, fee-based Vorschule which then was another sort of primary school. The Weimar Constitution banned these, feeling them to be an unjustified privilege, and the Basic Law still contains the constitutional rule Art. VI that: Pre-schools shall remain abolished.

Homeschooling is — between Schulpflicht compulsory schooling beginning with elementary school to 18 years — illegal in Germany. The illegality has to do with the prioritization of children's rights over the rights of parents: children have the right to the company of other children and adults who are not their parents, also parents cannot opt their kids out of sexual education classes because the state considers a child's right to information to be more important than a parent's desire to withhold it. The entry year can vary between 5 and 7, while stepping back or skipping a grade is also possible. After children complete their primary education at 10 years of age, 12 in Berlin and Brandenburg , there are five options for secondary schooling:. After passing through any of the above schools, pupils can start a career with an apprenticeship in the Berufsschule vocational school.

The Berufsschule is normally attended twice a week during a two, three, or three-and-a-half-year apprenticeship; the other days are spent working at a company. This is intended to provide a knowledge of theory and practice. The company is obliged to accept the apprentice on its apprenticeship scheme. After this, the apprentice is registered on a list at the Industrie- und Handelskammer IHK chamber of industry and commerce.

During the apprenticeship, the apprentice is a part-time salaried employee of the company. After passing the Berufsschule and the exit exams of the IHK, a certificate is awarded and the young person is ready for a career up to a low management level. In some areas, the schemes teach certain skills that are a legal requirement special positions in a bank, legal assistants.

Some special areas provide different paths. After attending any of the above schools and gaining a leaving certificate like Hauptschulabschluss , Mittlere Reife or Realschulabschuss , from a Realschule or Abitur from a Gymnasium or a Gesamtschule , school leavers can start a career with an apprenticeship at a Berufsschule vocational school. Here the student is registered with certain bodies, e.

During the apprenticeship, the young person is a part-time salaried employee of the institution, bank, physician or attorney's office. After leaving the Berufsfachschule and passing the exit examinations set by the German Bar Association or other relevant associations, the apprentice receives a certificate and is ready for a career at all levels except in positions which require a specific higher degree, such as a doctorate. In some areas, the apprenticeship scheme teaches skills that are required by law, including certain positions in a bank or those as legal assistants. The 16 states have exclusive responsibility in the field of education and professional education.

The federal parliament and the federal government can influence the educational system only by financial aid to the states. There are many different school systems, but in each state the starting point is always the Grundschule elementary school for a period of four years; or six years in the case of Berlin and Brandenburg. Grades 5 and 6 form an orientation or testing phase Orientierungs- or Erprobungsstufe during which students, their parents and teachers decide which of the above-mentioned paths the students should follow. In all states except Berlin and Brandenburg , this orientation phase is embedded into the program of the secondary schools. The decision for a secondary school influences the student's future, but during this phase changes can be made more easily.

In practice this rarely comes to bear because teachers are afraid of sending pupils to more academic schools whereas parents are afraid of sending their children to less academic schools. In Berlin and Brandenburg, the orientation is embedded into that of the elementary schools. Teachers give a so-called educational path recommendation Bildungs gang empfehlung based on scholastic achievements in the main subjects mathematics, German, natural sciences, foreign language and classroom behavior with details and legal implications differing from state to state: in some German states, those wishing to apply to a Gymnasium or Realschule require such a recommendation stating that the student is likely to make a successful transition to that type of school; in other cases anyone may apply.

A student's performance at primary school is immaterial. All German states have Gymnasium as one possibility for the more able children, and all states—except Saxony —have some Gesamtschulen , but in different forms. The states of Berlin and Hamburg have only two types of schools: comprehensive schools and Gymnasium. Learning a foreign language is compulsory throughout Germany in secondary schools and English is one of the more popular choices. Students at certain Gymnasium are required to learn Latin as their first foreign language and choose a second foreign language. The list of available foreign languages as well as the hours of compulsory foreign language lessons differ from state to state, but the more common choices besides Latin are English, French, Spanish, and ancient Greek.

Many schools also offer voluntary study groups for the purpose of learning other languages. At which stage students begin learning a foreign language differs from state to state and is tailored to the cultural and socio-economical dynamics of each state. In some states, foreign language education starts in Grundschule primary school. The Saarland , which borders France, begins with French in the third year of primary school and French is taught in high school as the main foreign language. It may cause problems in terms of education for families that plan to move from one German state to another as there are partially completely different curricula for nearly every subject.

Realschule students gain the chance to take their Abitur at a Gymnasium with a good degree in the Realschulabschluss. Stepping up is always provided by the school system. A few organizational central points are listed below. It should however be noted that due to the decentralized nature of the education system there are many more additional differences across the 16 states of Germany.

There are typically 12 weeks of holidays in addition to public holidays. Exact dates differ between states, but there are generally six weeks of summer and two weeks of Christmas holiday. The other holiday periods occur in spring during the period around Easter Sunday and autumn during the former harvest, where farmers used to need their children for field work. Schools can also schedule two or three special days off per term. Students have about 30—40 periods of 45 minutes each per week depending on year and state , but secondary schools in particular have switched to minute lessons Block which count as two 'traditional' lessons.

To manage classes that are taught three or five lessons per week there are two common ways. At some schools with minute periods there is still one minute lesson each day, mostly between the first two blocks; at other schools those subjects are taught in weekly or term rotations. The range of offered afternoon activities is different from school to school; however, most German schools offer choirs or orchestras, and sometimes sports, theater or languages. Many of these are offered as semi-scholastic AGs Arbeitsgemeinschaften —literally "working groups" , which are noted in students' reports but not officially graded.

Other common extracurricular activities are organized as private clubs, which are very popular in Germany. There are three blocks of lessons with each lesson taking 45 minutes. After each block, there is a break of 15—20 minutes, including after the sixth lesson the number of lessons changes from year to year, so it's possible that one would be in school until 4 o'clock. In grades 11—13, 11—12, or 12—13 depending on the school system , each student majors in two or three subjects Leistungskurse , in which there are usually five lessons per week.

The other subjects Grundkurse are usually taught three periods per week. The class is aimed at training students' scientific research skills that will later be necessary in university. There are significant differences between the 16 states' alternatives to this basic template, such as Waldorfschulen or other private schools. Adults can also go back to evening school and take the Abitur exam. In , six percent of German children attended private schools. In Germany, Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz , the constitution of Germany, guarantees the right to establish private schools. This article belongs to the first part of the German basic law , which defines civil and human rights. A right which is guaranteed in this part of the Grundgesetz can only be suspended in a state of emergency if the respective article specifically states this possibility.

That is not the case with this article. It is also not possible to abolish these rights. This unusual protection of private schools was implemented to protect them from a second Gleichschaltung or similar event in the future. Ersatzschulen are ordinary primary or secondary schools which are run by private individuals, private organizations or religious groups. These schools offer the same types of diplomas as in public schools. However, Ersatzschulen , like their state-run counterparts, are subjected to basic government standards, such as minimum required qualifications for teachers and pay grades.

An Ersatzschule must have at least the same academic standards as those of a state school and Article 7, Paragraph 4 of the Grundgesetz forbids the segregation of pupils based on socioeconomic status the so-called Sonderungsverbot. Therefore, most Ersatzschulen have very low tuition fees compared to those in most other Western European countries; scholarships are also often available. However, it is not possible to finance these schools with such low tuition fees: accordingly all German Ersatzschulen are subsidised with public funds.

Some students attend private schools through welfare subsidies. This is often the case if a student is considered to be a child at risk, such as students who have learning disabilities, special needs or come from dysfunctional home environments. After factoring in parents' socioeconomic status, children who attend private schools are not as able as those at state schools. At the Programme for International Student Assessment PISA for example, after considering socioeconomic class, students at private schools underperformed those at state schools. Some private Realschulen and Gymnasien have lower entry requirements than public Realschulen and Gymnasien. There are several types of special schools in Germany such as:.

Only one in 21 German children attends such a special school. Teachers at those schools are qualified professionals who have specialized in special-needs education while at university. Special schools often have a very favourable student-teacher ratio and facilities compared with other schools. Special schools have been criticized. It is argued that special education separates and discriminates against those who are disabled or different. There are very few specialist schools for gifted children. As German schools do not IQ-test children, most intellectually gifted children remain unaware that they fall into this category.

The German psychologist, Detlef H. Rost, carried out a pioneer long-term study on gifted children called the Marburger Hochbegabtenprojekt. Those who scored at least two standard deviations above the mean were categorised as gifted. A total of gifted subjects participated in the study alongside controls. All participants in the study were tested blind with the result that they did not discover whether they were gifted or not. The study revealed that the gifted children did very well in school.

The vast majority later attended a Gymnasium and achieved good grades. However, 15 percent, were classified as underachievers because they attended a Realschule two cases or a Hauptschule one case , had repeated a grade four cases or had grades that put them in the lower half of their class the rest of cases. The report also concluded that most gifted persons had high self-esteem and good psychological health.

Gifted children seemed to be served well by Germany's existing school system. The assessment in the year demonstrated serious weaknesses in German pupils' performance. In the test of 41 countries, Germany ranked 21st in reading and 20th in both mathematics and the natural sciences , prompting calls for reform. In response, Germany's states formulated a number of specific initiatives addressing the perceived problems behind Germany's poor performance. By , German schoolchildren had improved their position compared to previous years, being ranked statistically significantly above average rank 13 in science skills and statistically not significantly above or below average in mathematical skills rank 20 and reading skills rank The PISA Examination also found big differences in achievement between students attending different types of German schools.

Germany has high standards for the education of craftspeople. Historically very few people attended college. In the s for example, 80 percent had only Volksschule "primary school" education of 6 or 7 years. Only 5 percent of youths entered college at this time and still fewer graduated. In the s, six percent of youths entered college. In there were still 8, cities in which no children received secondary education.

In fact, many of those who did not receive secondary education were highly skilled craftspeople and members of the upper middle class. Even though more people attend college today, a craftsperson is still highly valued in German society. Historically prior to the 20th century the relationship between a master craftsman and his apprentice was paternalistic. Apprentices were often very young when entrusted to a master craftsman by their parents. It was seen as the master's responsibility not only to teach the craft, but also to instill the virtues of a good craftsman. He was supposed to teach honour, loyalty, fair-mindedness, courtesy and compassion for the poor. He was also supposed to offer spiritual guidance, to ensure his apprentices fulfilled their religious duties and to teach them to "honour the Lord" Jesus Christ with their lives.

The master craftsman who failed to do this would lose his reputation and would accordingly be dishonoured — a very bad fate in those days. The apprenticeship ended with the so-called Freisprechung exculpation. The master announced in front of the trade heading that the apprentice had been virtuous and God-loving. He had two options: either to work for a master or to become a master himself. Working for another master had several disadvantages. One was that, in many cases, the journeyman who was not a master was not allowed to marry and found a family. Because the church disapproved of sex outside of marriage, he was obliged to become a master if he did not want to spend his life celibate.

This was called Waltz or Journeyman years. In those days, the crafts were called the "virtuous crafts" and the virtuousness of the craftspersons was greatly respected. For example, according to one source, a person should be greeted from "the bricklayer craftspersons in the town, who live in respectability, die in respectability, who strive for respectability and who apply respectability to their actions. Nowadays, the education of craftspersons has changed — in particular self-esteem and the concept of respectability.

Certain virtues are also ascribed to certain crafts. For example, a person might be called "always on time like a bricklayer" to describe punctuality. Today, a young person who wants to start an apprenticeship must first find an Ausbilder : this may be a master craftsperson, a master in the industrial sector Industriemeister or someone else with proof of suitable qualifications in the training of apprentices. The Ausbilder must also provide proof of no criminal record and proof of respectability. The Ausbilder has to be at least 24 years of age. The Ausbilder has several duties, such as teaching the craft and the techniques, and instilling character and social skills. In some cases, the Ausbilder must also provide board and lodging.

Agreement is reached on these points before the apprenticeship begins. The apprentice will also receive payment for his work. An Ausbilder who provides board and lodging may set this off against the payment made. In the past, many of those who applied for an apprenticeship had only primary school education. Nowadays, only those with secondary school education apply for apprenticeships because secondary school attendance has become compulsory.

In some trades, it has even become difficult for those holding the Hauptschulabschluss to find an apprenticeship because more and more pupils leave school with the Realschulabschluss or Abitur. The apprenticeship takes three years. During that time, the apprentice is trained by the Ausbilder and also attends a vocational school. This is called the German model or dual education system Duale Ausbildung. Germany's universities are recognised internationally; in the Academic Ranking of World Universities ARWU for , six of the top universities in the world are in Germany, and 18 of the top The dual education system combines both practical and theoretical education but does not lead to academic degrees.

It is more popular in Germany than anywhere else in the world and is a role model for other countries. The oldest universities of Germany are also among the oldest and best regarded in the world, with Heidelberg University being the oldest established in and in continuous operation since then. While German universities have a strong focus on research, a large part of it is also done outside of universities in independent institutes that are embedded in academic clusters, such as within the Max Planck , Fraunhofer , Leibniz and Helmholtz institutes.

This German peculiarity of "outsourcing" research leads to a competition for funds between universities and research institutes and may negatively affect academic rankings. Other degree-awarding higher education institutions may use the more generic term Hochschule. In addition, non-university institutions of tertiary level exist in the German education system. The admission requirement is usually a previous education including work experience. As an example, Fachschulen for technological subjects can be cited, which are completed with a state examination EQF level 6.

Some universities use the term research university in international usage to emphasize their strength in research activity in addition to teaching, particularly to differentiate themselves from Fachhochschulen. The excellence initiative has awarded eleven universities with the title University of Excellence. Professors at regular universities were traditionally required to have a doctorate as well as a habilitation. Since , the junior professorship was introduced to offer a more direct path to employment as a professor for outstanding doctoral degree.

Fachhochschulen have a more practical profile with a focus on employability. In research, they are rather geared to applied research instead of fundamental research. At a traditional university, it is important to study "why" a method is scientifically right; however, this is less important at Universities of Applied Sciences. Here the emphasis is placed on what systems and methods exist, where they come from, what their advantages and disadvantages are, how to use them in practice, when they should be used, and when not. For professors at a Fachhochschule , at least three years of work experience are required for appointment while a habilitation is not expected. This is unlike their counterparts at traditional universities, where an academic career with research experience is necessary.

Prior to the Bologna Process , Fachhochschule graduates received a Diplom. FH Max Mustermann for a graduate engineer from a Fachhochschule. The FH Diploma is roughly equivalent to a bachelor's degree. An FH Diploma does not qualify the holder for a doctoral program directly, but in practice universities admit the best FH graduates on an individual basis after an additional entrance exam or participation in theoretical classes. For Fachhochschulen , the Abitur , the Fachgebundene Hochschulreife certification or the Fachhochschulreife certification general or subject-restricted is required. Lacking these school leaving certifications, in some states potential students can qualify for university entrance if they present additional formal proof that they will be able to keep up with their fellow students.

Such is the case, for example, in Hamburg. While there are numerous ways to achieve entrance qualification to German universities, [63] the most traditional route has always been graduation from a Gymnasium with the Abitur; however this has become less common over time. As of , less than half of university freshmen in some German states had graduated from a Gymnasium. Even in Bavaria a state with a policy of strengthening the Gymnasium only 56 percent of freshmen had graduated from a Gymnasium. High school diplomas received from countries outside of Germany are, in many cases, not considered equivalent to the Abitur, but rather to a Realschulabschluss and therefore do not qualify the bearer for admission to a German university.

However, it is still possible for such applicants to be admitted to a German university if they fulfill additional formal criteria, such as a particular grade point average or points on a standardized admissions test. These criteria depend on the school leaving certificate of the potential student and are agreed upon by the Standing Conference of the Ministers of Education and Cultural Affairs. For example, holders of the US high school diploma with a combined math and verbal score of on the SAT or 29 on the ACT may qualify for university admission. Foreign students lacking the entrance qualification can acquire a degree at a Studienkolleg , which is often recognized as an equivalent to the Abitur. The one-year course covers similar topics as the Abitur and ensures sufficient language skills to take up studies at a German university.

The process of application depends on the degree program applied for, the applicant's origin and the university entrance qualification. According to German law, universities are not permitted to discriminate against or grant preferential treatment to persons on basis of race, ethnic group, gender, social class, religion or political opinion. Public universities in Germany are funded by the federal states and do not charge tuition fees. However, all enrolled students do have to pay a semester fee Semesterbeitrag.

This fee consists of an administrative fee for the university only in some of the states , a fee for Studentenwerk , which is a statutory student affairs organization, a fee for the university's AStA Allgemeiner Studentenausschuss , students' government and Studentenschaft students' union , at many universities a fee for public transportation, and possibly more fees as decided by the university's students' parliament e. In , the German Federal Constitutional Court ruled that a federal law prohibiting tuition fees was unconstitutional, on the grounds that education is the sole responsibility of the states. Due to massive student protests and a citizens' initiative which collected 70, signatures against tuition fees, the government of Hesse was the first to reverse course before the state election in ; other state governments soon followed.

Several parties which spoke out for tuition fees lost state elections. Bavaria in and Lower Saxony in were the last states to abolish tuition fees. Even after the abolition of general tuition fees, tuition fees for long-time students remain in six states. There are university-sponsored scholarships in Germany and a number of private and public institutions award scholarships—usually to cover living costs and books. Furthermore, students need to have a prospect of remaining in Germany to be eligible; this includes German and EU citizens, but often also long-term residents of other countries. For international students there are different approaches to get a full scholarship or a funding of their studies. To be able to get a scholarship a successful application is mandatory.

It can be submitted upon arrival in Germany as well as after arrival. Therefore, many foreign students have to work to finance their studies. Since the end of World War II , the number of young people entering a university has more than tripled in Germany, but university attendance is still lower than that of many other European nations. This can be explained with the dual education system with its strong emphasis on apprenticeships and vocational schools. Many jobs which do require an academic degree in other countries such as nursing require completed vocational training instead in Germany.

The rate of university graduates varies by federal state. The number is the highest in Berlin and the lowest in Schleswig-Holstein. The organizational structure of German universities goes back to the university model introduced by Wilhelm von Humboldt in the early 19th century, which identifies the unity of teaching and research as well as academic freedom as ideals. Colleges elsewhere had previously dedicated themselves to religion and classic literature, and Germany's shift to a research-based model was an institutional innovation.

Some critics argue that nowadays German universities have a rather unbalanced focus, more on education and less on research. At German universities, students enroll for a specific program of study Studiengang. During their studies, students can usually choose freely from all courses offered at the university. However, all bachelor's degree programs require a number of particular compulsory courses and all degree programs require a minimum number of credits that must be earned in the core field of the program of study.

It is not uncommon to spend longer than the regular period of study Regelstudienzeit at university. There are no fixed classes of students who study and graduate together. Students can change universities according to their interests and the strengths of each university. Sometimes students attend multiple different universities over the course of their studies. This mobility means that at German universities there is a freedom and individuality unknown in the US, the UK, or France. Professors also choose their subjects for research and teaching freely.

This academic freedom is laid down in the German constitution. Since German universities do not offer accommodation or meals, students are expected to organize and pay for board and lodging themselves. Inexpensive places in dormitories are available from Studentenwerk , a statutory non-profit organization for student affairs. However, there are only enough places for a fraction of students. Other common housing options include renting a private room or apartment as well as living together with one or more roommates to form a Wohngemeinschaft often abbreviated WG. Furthermore, many university students continue to live with their parents. One third to one half of the students works to make a little extra money, often resulting in a longer stay at university.

Recently, the implementation of the Bologna Declaration introduced bachelor's and master's degrees as well as ECTS credits to the German higher education system. Previously, universities conferred Diplom and Magister degrees depending on the field of study, which usually took 4—6 years. These were the only degrees below the doctorate. In the majority of subjects, students can only study for bachelor's and master's degrees, as Diplom or Magister courses do not accept new enrollments.

However, a few Diplom courses still prevail. The following Bologna degrees are common in Germany:. In addition, there are courses leading to the Staatsexamen state examination. These did usually not transition to bachelor's and master's degrees. For future doctors, dentists, veterinarians, pharmacists, and lawyers, the Staatsexamen is required to be allowed to work in their profession. For teachers, judges, and public prosecutors, it is the required degree for working in civil service. Students usually study at university for 4—8 years before they take the First Staatsexamen.

Afterwards, they go on to work in their future jobs for one or two years depending on subject and state , before they are able to take the Second Staatsexamen , which tests their practical abilities. While it is not an academic degree formally, the First Staatsexamen is equivalent to a master's degree and qualifies for doctoral studies.

TypeScript is both a language and a set Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education tools. Historically, Lutheranism had a strong influence criticism of functionalism German culture, including Similarities And Differences Between Italian Education And Italian System Of Education what did rich victorians eat. The exact pronunciation of these three consonants varies somewhat with dialect.

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