# ✍️✍️✍️ Alan Turing Paper

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Alan Turing's Wonderful Machine - Pluralsight

Over the past several decades, the test has significantly influenced debates over artificial intelligence. Homosexuality was illegal in the United Kingdom in the early s, so when Turing admitted to police, called to his house after a January break-in, that he'd had a sexual relationship with the perpetrator, year-old Arnold Murray, he was charged with gross indecency. Following his arrest, Turing was forced to choose between temporary probation on the condition that he receive hormonal treatment for libido reduction, or imprisonment. He chose the former, and soon underwent chemical castration through injections of a synthetic estrogen hormone for a year, which eventually rendered him impotent. As a result of his conviction, Turing's security clearance was removed and he was barred from continuing his work with cryptography at the GCCS, which had become the GCHQ in Turing died on June 7, Following a postmortem exam, it was determined that the cause of death was cyanide poisoning.

The remains of an apple were found next to the body, though no apple parts were found in his stomach. The autopsy reported that "four ounces of fluid which smelled strongly of bitter almonds, as does a solution of cyanide" was found in the stomach. Trace smell of bitter almonds was also reported in vital organs. The autopsy concluded that the cause of death was asphyxia due to cyanide poisoning and ruled a suicide. In a June BBC article, philosophy professor and Turing expert Jack Copeland argued that Turing's death may have been an accident: The apple was never tested for cyanide, nothing in the accounts of Turing's last days suggested he was suicidal and Turing had cyanide in his house for chemical experiments he conducted in his spare room.

For what would have been his 86th birthday, Turing biographer Andrew Hodges unveiled an official English Heritage blue plaque at his childhood home. A bronze statue of Turing was unveiled at the University of Surrey on October 28, , to mark the 50th anniversary of his death. Additionally, the Princeton University Alumni Weekly named Turing the second most significant alumnus in the history of the school — James Madison held the No.

Turing was honored in a number of other ways, particularly in the city of Manchester, where he worked toward the end of his life. In , Time magazine named him one of its " Most Important People of the 20th century," saying, "The fact remains that everyone who taps at a keyboard, opening a spreadsheet or a word-processing program, is working on an incarnation of a Turing machine. By and large, Turing has been recognized for his impact on computer science, with many crediting him as the "founder" of the field. Following a petition started by John Graham-Cumming, then-Prime Minister Gordon Brown released a statement on September 10, , on behalf of the British government, which posthumously apologized to Turing for prosecuting him as a homosexual.

But even more than that, Alan deserves recognition for his contribution to humankind," Brown stated. So on behalf of the British government, and all those who live freely thanks to Alan's work I am very proud to say: we're sorry, you deserved so much better. In , Queen Elizabeth II posthumously granted Turing a rare royal pardon almost 60 years after he committed suicide. The famed scientist was chosen from a list of nearly 1, candidates nominated by the general public, including theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking and mathematician Ada Lovelace.

We strive for accuracy and fairness. By making this definition of computability, Turing went outside pure mathematics. To justify his claim that his definition would encompass anything that could reasonably be called computation, Alan Turing described his concept of the Turing machine in terms of 'states of mind', and his work has important implications for the philosophy of Mind.

This Rutgers University course by Charles F. Schmidt has an extensive discussion of computability and artificial intelligence. It is notable for substantial quotation from Turing's original paper on this page. There is a discussion of the Church-Turing thesis in my entry in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. There was much talk in the s of it being an 'age of machines. Wells's futuristic fantasy of became a film in Little did they know He went on to a prolific period of mathematical work, and in particular to investigate what lay beyond the scope of Turing machines.

Scrapbook Index. The years from to were the foundation of Alan Turing's serious scientific life. The atmosphere at King's College, Cambridge, was highly conducive to free-ranging thought. As an undergraduate there, Alan Turing developed the inspiration he had received from Christopher Morcom, and combined it with the newest ideas in mathematics. Mathematical Logic In a course by the Cambridge mathematician M. Max Newman introduced Alan Turing to the frontier of research in mathematical logic. The twentieth century dawn Already in , Turing was familiar with the work of Bertrand Russell on the foundations of mathematics. Turing Machines and Computability The question Hilbert raised was whether there could be a general method or process by which one could decide whether a mathematical proposition could be proved.

But what exactly was meant by a 'method' or 'process'? People had already used the concept of a 'mechanical' process, and Turing had an idea which made this quite precise: computability. Turing's famous paper On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem, which worked out the theory of Turing machines and the definition of computability, is available as a PDF file on-line American Mathematical Society page explaining Turing machines. Wolfram Research page on Turing machines. Spanish-language page from Zator Systems Russian language page from Informatik. Computer prophet and profit In this passage Alan Turing founded modern computer science.

Economic motivations played no part. Money could not buy it: Election to Fellowship of the Royal Society, fifteen years later. Money could not buy it: creation of the A. Turing Award by the Association for Computing Machinery, thirty years later. The Universal Machine Section 6 of Turing's paper began: 6. The universal computing machine It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence. Visualising Turing Machines It is now almost impossible to read Turing's work without thinking of a Turing machine as a computer program, and the Universal Turing Machine as the computer on which different programs can be run.

If it seems puzzling that a Universal Turing Machine is itself only a particular kind of Turing machine, remember that a computer can be emulated as a program on another computer. There are three applications ready to run on-line. It does not seem to be available now. Paul Rendell's simulator. Turing Machines since Alan Turing's definition of a Turing machine was not intended as a blueprint for how one would actually build practical computing machinery. The Uncomputable Whilst Turing did not see all the possible applications of his theory of the computable, he did know from the start that his definition of computability entailed the fact that uncomputable numbers and functions can also be defined explicitly.

Indeed, this was the principal mathematical result of his work. Computability and the Philosophy of Mind By making this definition of computability, Turing went outside pure mathematics. My text on Alan Turing as a philosopher includes a substantial amount of Turing's original writing, and in particular big chunks of On computable numbers. To do this, however Church had assumed that the notion of being 'effectively calculable' was correctly captured by the lambda-calculus of mathematical logic. This assumption became known as Church's Thesis.

Turing's definition of effective calculability was much more compelling and it was generally agreed that his approach was both independent and more satisfactory. Turing showed in summer that this own definition coincided with Church's in its mathematical consequences. The statement that the 'effectively calculable' is equivalent to the scope of Turing machines is now generally known as the Church-Turing thesis. But by bringing a kind of physical action into the picture, the Turing thesis is subtly different from Church's. Passport photograph, The shape of things to come Continue to the next Scrapbook page.

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