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During the training phase, monkeys received immediate feedback after they made responses. They can earn two tokens if they make correct choices but lost two tokens if they were wrong. In Experiment 1, the confidence rating was introduced after they completed their responses in order to test the retrospective metamemory judgments. After each response, a high-risk and a low-risk choice were provided to the monkeys. They could earn one token regardless of their accuracy if they choose the low-risk option. When they chose high-risk, they were rewarded with three tokens if their memory response was correct on that trial but lost three tokens if they made incorrect responses.
Morgan and colleagues found a significant positive correlation between memory accuracy and risk choice in two rhesus monkeys. That is, they were more likely to select the high-risk option if they answered correctly in the working memory task but select the low-risk option if they were failed in the memory task. Then Morgan et al. This study employed the same design except that two monkeys were asked to make low-risk or high-risk confidence judgment before they make actual responses to measure their judgments about future events.
Similarly, the monkeys were more often to choose high-risk confidence judgment before answering correctly in working memory task and tended to choose the low-risk option before providing an incorrect response. These two studies indicated that rhesus monkeys can accurately monitor their performance and provided evidence of metacognitive abilities in monkeys. In addition to nonhuman primates, other animals are also shown metacognition. Foote and Crystal provided the first evidence that rats have the knowledge of what they know in a perceptual discrimination task.
Some noises with intermediate durations were difficult to discriminate as short or long. Rats were provided with an option to decline to take the test on some trials but were forced to make responses on other trials. If they chose to take the test and respond correctly, they would receive a high reward but no reward if their classification of noises was incorrect.
But if the rats decline to take the test, they would be guaranteed a smaller reward. The results showed that rats were more likely to decline to take the test when the difficulty of noise discrimination increased, suggesting rats knew they do not have the correct answers and declined to take the test to receive the reward. Another finding is that the performance was better when they had chosen to take the test compared with if the rats were forced to make responses, proving that some uncertain trials were declined to improve the accuracy. These responses pattern might be attributed to actively monitor their own mental states.
Alternatively, external cues such as environmental cue associations could be used to explain their behaviors in the discrimination task. Rats might have learned the association between intermediate stimuli and the decline option over time. Longer response latencies or some features inherent to stimuli can serve as discriminative cues to decline tests. Therefore, Templer, Lee, and Preston utilized an olfactory-based delayed match to sample DMTS memory task to assess whether rats were capable of metacognitive responding adaptively. The correct choices of odor were associated with high reward and incorrect choices have no reward.
The decline options were accompanied by a small reward. They hypothesized that rats would decline more often when there was no sample odor presented compared with odor presented if rats could internally assess the memory strength. Alternatively, if the decline option was motivated by external environmental cues, the rats would be less likely to decline the test because no available external cues were presented. The results showed that rats were more likely to decline the test in no-sample trials relative to normal sample trials, supporting the notion that rats can track their internal memory strength.
To rule out other potential possibilities, they also manipulated memory strength by providing the sampled odor twice and varying the retention interval between the learning and the test. Templer and colleagues found rats were less likely to decline the test if they had been exposed to the sample twice, suggesting that their memory strength for these samples was increased. Longer delayed sample test was more often declined than short delayed test because their memory was better after the short delay.
Overall, their series of studies demonstrated that rats could distinguish between remembering and forgetting and rule out the possibilities that decline use was modulated by the external cues such as environmental cue associations. Research on metacognition of pigeons has shown limited success. A safe key was also presented in some trials next to three sample stimuli which allow them to decline that trial. Pigeons received a high reward for pecking correct stimuli, a middle-level reward for pecking the safe key, and nothing if they pecked the wrong stimuli. However, in Experiment 2, when pigeons were presented with the option to escape or take the test before the test phase, there was no relationship between choosing the safe key and longer retention interval.
Adams and Santi also employed the DMTS procedure in a perceptual discrimination task during which pigeons were trained to discriminate between durations of illumination. After extended training, they learned to escape the difficult trials. However, these patterns might be attributed to the possibility that pigeons learned the association between escape responses and longer retention delay. In addition to DMTS paradigm, Castro and Wasserman proved that pigeons can exhibit adaptive and efficient information-seeking behavior in the same-different discrimination task. Pigeons were required to distinguish between the two arrays of items in which the level of difficulty was varied.
Castro and Wasserman found that the more difficult the task, the more often pigeons chose the information button to solve the discrimination task. This behavioral pattern indicated that pigeons could evaluate the difficulty of the task internally and actively search for information when is necessary. Dogs have shown a certain level of metacognition that they are sensitive to information they have acquired or not. After that, dogs were encouraged to find the reward by walking around one fence. The dogs checked more frequently before selecting the fence when they did not see the baiting process compared with when they saw where the reward was hidden. However, contrary to apes,  dogs did not show more checking behaviors when the delay between baiting the reward and selecting the fence was longer.
Their findings suggested that dogs have some aspect of information-searching behaviors but less flexibly compared to apes. Smith et al. An escape option was available on some trials associated with a small reward. Their studies showed that dolphins could appropriately use the uncertain response when the trials were difficult to discriminate. There is consensus that nonhuman primates, especially great apes and rhesus monkeys, exhibit metacognitive control and monitoring behaviors. Animals have shown adaptive metacognitive behavior even with the absence of concrete reward. Metacognitive-like processes are especially ubiquitous when it comes to the discussion of self-regulated learning.
Self-regulation requires metacognition by looking at one's awareness of their learning and planning further learning methodology. Metacognition is 'stable' in that learners' initial decisions derive from the pertinent facts about their cognition through years of learning experience. Simultaneously, it is also 'situated' in the sense that it depends on learners' familiarity with the task, motivation, emotion, and so forth. Individuals need to regulate their thoughts about the strategy they are using and adjust it based on the situation to which the strategy is being applied. At a professional level, this has led to emphasis on the development of reflective practice , particularly in the education and health-care professions. Recently, the notion has been applied to the study of second language learners in the field of TESOL and applied linguistics in general e.
This new development has been much related to Flavell , where the notion of metacognition is elaborated within a tripartite theoretical framework. Learner metacognition is defined and investigated by examining their person knowledge, task knowledge and strategy knowledge. Wenden has proposed and used this framework and Zhang has adopted this approach and investigated second language learners' metacognition or metacognitive knowledge. In addition to exploring the relationships between learner metacognition and performance, researchers are also interested in the effects of metacognitively-oriented strategic instruction on reading comprehension e.
The efforts are aimed at developing learner autonomy , interdependence and self-regulation. Metacognition helps people to perform many cognitive tasks more effectively. How have I solved problems like this before? Carr, , argues that the physical act of writing plays a large part in the development of metacognitive skills. Strategy Evaluation matrices SEM can help to improve the knowledge of cognition component of metacognition. The SEM works by identifying the declarative Column 1 , procedural Column 2 and conditional Column 3 and 4 knowledge about specific strategies. The SEM can help individuals identify the strength and weaknesses about certain strategies as well as introduce them to new strategies that they can add to their repertoire.
A regulation checklist RC is a useful strategy for improving the regulation of cognition aspect of one's metacognition. RCs help individuals to implement a sequence of thoughts that allow them to go over their own metacognition. Examples of strategies that can be taught to students are word analysis skills, active reading strategies, listening skills, organizational skills and creating mnemonic devices. Walker and Walker have developed a model of metacognition in school learning termed Steering Cognition , which describes the capacity of the mind to exert conscious control over its reasoning and processing strategies in relation to the external learning task.
Studies have shown that pupils with an ability to exert metacognitive regulation over their attentional and reasoning strategies used when engaged in maths, and then shift those strategies when engaged in science or then English literature learning, associate with higher academic outcomes at secondary school. MSK had been defined as "general knowledge about the cognitive procedures that are being manipulated".
The knowledge involved in MSK consists of "making generalizations and drawing rules regarding a thinking strategy" and of "naming" the thinking strategy. The important conscious act of a metastrategic strategy is the "conscious" awareness that one is performing a form of higher order thinking. MSK is an awareness of the type of thinking strategies being used in specific instances and it consists of the following abilities: making generalizations and drawing rules regarding a thinking strategy, naming the thinking strategy, explaining when, why and how such a thinking strategy should be used, when it should not be used, what are the disadvantages of not using appropriate strategies, and what task characteristics call for the use of the strategy. MSK deals with the broader picture of the conceptual problem.
It creates rules to describe and understand the physical world around the people who utilize these processes called higher-order thinking. This is the capability of the individual to take apart complex problems in order to understand the components in problem. These are the building blocks to understanding the "big picture" of the main problem through reflection and problem solving.
Both social and cognitive dimensions of sporting expertise can be adequately explained from a metacognitive perspective according to recent research. The potential of metacognitive inferences and domain-general skills including psychological skills training are integral to the genesis of expert performance. Moreover, the contribution of both mental imagery e. In the context of mental health, metacognition can be loosely defined as the process that "reinforces one's subjective sense of being a self and allows for becoming aware that some of one's thoughts and feelings are symptoms of an illness". Metacognition brings many unique insights into the normal daily functioning of a human being.
It also demonstrates that a lack of these insights compromises 'normal' functioning. This leads to less healthy functioning. In the autism spectrum, there is a profound deficit in Theory of Mind. Alcohol may be used as a coping strategy for controlling unwanted thoughts and emotions formed by negative perceptions. Adrian Wells ' and Gerald Matthews' theory proposes that when faced with an undesired choice, an individual can operate in two distinct modes: "object" and "metacognitive".
They are not as easily trusted. There are targeted interventions unique of each patient, that gives rise to the belief that assistance in increasing metacognition in people diagnosed with schizophrenia is possible through tailored psychotherapy. With a customized therapy in place clients then have the potential to develop greater ability to engage in complex self-reflection. In the obsessive—compulsive spectrum , cognitive formulations have greater attention to intrusive thoughts related to the disorder. Patients with OCD exemplify varying degrees of these "intrusive thoughts".
Patients also suffering from generalized anxiety disorder also show negative thought process in their cognition. Cognitive-attentional syndrome CAS characterizes a metacognitive model of emotion disorder CAS is consistent with the attention strategy of excessively focusing on the source of a threat. Metacognitive therapy attempts to correct this change in the CAS. One of the techniques in this model is called attention training ATT. ATT also trains clients to detect threats and test how controllable reality appears to be.
The concept of metacognition has also been applied to reader-response criticism. Narrative works of art , including novels, movies and musical compositions, can be characterized as metacognitive artifacts which are designed by the artist to anticipate and regulate the beliefs and cognitive processes of the recipient,  for instance, how and in which order events and their causes and identities are revealed to the reader of a detective story.
As Menakhem Perry has pointed out, mere order has profound effects on the aesthetical meaning of a text. They are something of a tool with which the creators of the work wish to attain certain aesthetical and even moral effects. There is an intimate, dynamic interplay between mind wandering and metacognition. Metacognition serves to correct the wandering mind, suppressing spontaneous thoughts and bringing attention back to more "worthwhile" tasks. The concept of metacognition has also been applied to collective teams and organizations in general, termed organizational metacognition.
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Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. Psychology Press. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Submitted manuscript. CiteSeerX David; Perdue, Bonnie M. Psychological Science. March Animal Cognition. Current Biology. Animal Behavior and Cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General. David; Couchman, Justin J. Journal of Comparative Psychology. David; Zakrzewski, Alexandria C. David; Coutinho, Mariana V. David; Redford, Joshua S. Retrieved 31 January The father of modern astronomy, he was the first modern European scientist to propose that Earth and other planets revolve around the sun.
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