⌛ Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality
Within this theory the ability of a person to resolve internal conflicts at specific stages of their development determines future Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality and Jehovah Kingdom Hall Research Paper ability as a fully-mature adult. This stage can occur out of the Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality when an individual feels they are near the end of their life such as when receiving Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality terminal disease diagnosis. Erikson's Shrek lord farquaad of Human Development. However, infants and Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality should not be subjected to prolonged situations Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality mistrust. According to Erikson, when Blood Drive Essay adolescent has balanced both perspectives of "What have I got? For Erikson, these crises are of a psychosocial in Right From Wrong By Carey Gelester Analysis because Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality involve psychological consequentialism and deontology of the individual conflicting with the needs of society.
Freud’s 5 Stages of Psychosexual Development
Career Anchors e-Learning. Career Anchors — Edgar Schein. What are Schein's Career Anchors? Components of a Personal Development Plan. Four Competencies of Leadership — Bennis. Keeping a CPD Log. Personal Development Plan Templates. An Overview of Erikson's Psychosocial Theory of Human Development Erikson's model of psychosocial development is a very significant, highly regarded and meaningful concept. Life is a series of lessons and challenges which help us to grow.
Erikson's wonderful theory helps to tell us why. The theory is helpful for child development, and adults too. Erikson believed that his psychosocial principle is genetically inevitable in shaping human development. It occurs in all people. He also referred to his theory as 'epigenesis' and the 'epigenetic principle', which signified the concept's relevance to evolution past and future and genetics. Erikson, like Freud, was largely concerned with how personality and behaviour are influenced after birth - not before birth - and especially during childhood.
In the 'nature v nurture' genes v experience debate, Erikson was firmly focused on nurture and experience. Eight Stages of Psychosocial Development Like other seminal concepts, Erikson's model is simple and elegant, yet very sophisticated. The main elements of the theory covered in this explanation are: Erikson theory overview - a diagram and concise explanation of the main features of model. The Freudian stages of psychosexual development , which influenced Erikson's approach to the psychosocial model. Erikson's 'psychosocial crises' or crisis stages - meanings and interpretations.
Erikson terminology - variations and refinements to names and headings, etc. Erik Erikson biography briefly N. Summary Diagram Here's a broad introduction to the main features of Erikson's model. Freudian psychosexual stages - overview Erikson's psychosocial crisis stages age guide 1. Oral Stage - Feeding, crying, teething, biting, thumb-sucking, weaning - the mouth and the breast are the centre of all experience. The infant's actual experiences and attachments to mum or maternal equivalent through this stage have a fundamental effect on the unconscious mind and thereby on deeply rooted feelings, which along with the next two stages affect all sorts of behaviours and sexually powered drives and aims - Freud's 'libido' - and preferences in later life.
Anal Stage - It's a lot to do with pooh - 'holding on' or 'letting go' - the pleasure and control. Is it dirty? Is it okay? Bodily expulsions are the centre of the world, and the pivot around which early character is formed. Am I pleasing my mum and dad? Are they making me feel good or bad about my bottom? Am I okay or naughty? Again the young child's actual experiences through this stage have a deep effect on the unconscious and behaviours and preferences in later life. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt yrs, toddler, toilet training 3.
Phallic Stage - Phallic is not restricted to boys. This stage is focused on resolving reproductive issues. This is a sort of dry run before the real game starts in adolescence. Where do babies come from? Can I have a baby? Why has dad got a willy and I've not? Why have I got a willy and mum hasn't? Why do they tell me off for touching my bits and pieces down there? Boys I'm going to marry mum and maybe kill dad. Girls I'm in love with my dad. If you want to know more about all this I recommend you read about Freud, not Erikson, and I repeat that understanding Freud's psychosexual theory is not required for understanding and using Erikson's concepts.
Initiative v Guilt yrs, pre-school, nursery 4. Latency Stage - Sexual dormancy or repression. The focus is on learning, skills, schoolwork. This is actually not a psychosexual stage because basically normally nothing formative happens sexually. Experiences, fears and conditioning from the previous stages have already shaped many of the child's feelings and attitudes and these will re-surface in the next stage. Industry v Inferiority yrs, early school 5. Genital stage - Puberty in other words. Glandular, hormonal, and physical changes in the adolescent child's body cause a resurgence of sexual thoughts, feelings and behaviours.
Boys start treating their mothers like woman-servants and challenge their fathers Freud's 'Oedipus'. All become highly agitated if away from a mirror for more than half an hour Freud's Narcissus or Narcissism. Dating and fondling quickly push schoolwork and sports and anything else encouraged by parents and figures of authority into second place. Basically everyone is in turmoil and it's mostly to do with growing up, which entails more sexual undercurrents than parents would ever believe, even though these same parents went through exactly the same struggles themselves just a few years before.
It's a wonder anyone ever makes it to adulthood, but of course they do, and mostly it's all perfectly normal. This is the final Freudian psychosexual stage. Erikson's model, which from the start offers a different and more socially oriented perspective, continues through to old age, and re-interprets Freudian sexual theory into the adult life stages equating to Erikson's crisis stages. This incorporation of Freudian sexual stages into the adult crisis stages is not especially significant.
Identity v Role Confusion yrs, puberty, teens earlier for girls Arguably no direct equivalent Freudian stage, although as from Identity and the Life Cycle Erikson clearly separated Puberty and Genitality Freud's Genital stage , and related each respectively to Identity v Role Confusion, and Intimacy v Isolation. Intimacy v Isolation , courting, early parenthood No direct equivalent Freudian stage, although Erikson later interpreted this as being a psychosexual stage of 'Procreativity'. Generativity v Stagnation , middle age, parenting Again no direct equivalent Freudian stage. Erikson later called this the psychosexual stage of 'Generalization of Sensual Modes'.
Psychosocial Crisis Stage Life Stage age range, other descriptions 1. Autonomy v Shame and Doubt Early Childhood yrs, toddler, toilet training 3. Initiative v Guilt Play Age yrs, pre-school, nursery 4. Industry v Inferiority School Age yrs, early school 5. Intimacy v Isolation Young Adult , courting, early parenthood 7. Generativity v Stagnation Adulthood , middle age, parenting 8. Trust v Mistrust 'To get' 'To give in return' To receive and to give in return.
Trust is reciprocal - maybe karma even.. The infant will develop a healthy balance between trust and mistrust if fed and cared for and not over-indulged or over-protected. Abuse or neglect or cruelty will destroy trust and foster mistrust. Mistrust increases a person's resistance to risk-exposure and exploration. On the other hand, if the infant is insulated from all and any feelings of surprise and normality, or unfailingly indulged, this will create a false sense of trust amounting to sensory distortion, in other words, a failure to appreciate reality. Infants who grow up to trust are more able to hope and have faith that 'things will generally be okay'.
This crisis stage incorporates Freud's psychosexual Oral stage, in which the infant's crucial relationships and experiences are defined by oral matters, notably feeding and relationship with mum. Of course very Freudian Autonomy means self-reliance. This is the independence of thought, and basic confidence to think and act for oneself. Shame and Doubt mean what they say, and obviously inhibit self-expression and developing one's own ideas, opinions and sense of self.
Toilet and potty training is a significant part of this crisis, as in Freud's psychosexual Anal stage, where parental reactions, encouragement and patience play an important role in shaping the young child's experience and successful progression through this period. The significance of parental reaction is not limited to bottoms and pooh - it concerns all aspects of toddler exploration and discovery while small children struggle to find their feet - almost literally - as little people in their own right. The 'terrible twos' and 'toddler tantrums' are a couple of obvious analogies which represent these internal struggles and parental battles.
The parental balancing act is a challenging one, especially since parents themselves are having to deal with their own particular psychosocial crisis, and of course deal with the influence of their own emotional triggers which were conditioned when they themselves passed through earlier formative crisis stages. What are the odds that whenever a parent berates a child, "That's dirty.. To pursue ideas, plans The initiative is the capability to devise actions or projects, and confidence and belief that it is okay to do so, even with a risk of failure or making mistakes. Guilt means what it says, and in this context is the feeling that it is wrong or inappropriate to instigate something of one's own design. Guilt results from being admonished or believing that something is wrong or likely to attract disapproval.
Initiative flourishes when adventure and game-playing are encouraged, irrespective of how silly it seems to the grown-up in charge. Suppressing adventure and experimentation, or preventing young children doing things for themselves because of time, mess or a bit of risk will inhibit the development of confidence to initiate, replacing it instead with an unhelpful fear of being wrong or unapproved. The fear of being admonished or accused of being stupid becomes a part of the personality. Parents, carers and older siblings have the challenge to get the balance right between giving young children enough space and encouragement so as to foster a sense of purpose and confidence, but to protect against danger, and also to enable a sensible exposure to trail and error, and to the consequences of mistakes, without which an irresponsible or reckless tendency can develop.
This crisis stage correlates with Freud's psychosexual Phallic stage, characterised by a perfectly natural interest in genitals, where babies come from, and as Freud asserted, an attachment to the opposite sex parent, and the murky mysteries of the Oedipus Complex, Penis Envy and Castration Anxiety, about which further explanation and understanding are not critical to appreciating Erikson's theory. What's more essential is to recognise that children of this age are not wicked or bad or naughty, they are exploring and experimenting very naturally in pursuit of learning, development and confidence.
The industry here refers to purposeful or meaningful activity. It's the development of competence and skills, and confidence to use a 'method', and is a crucial aspect of school years experience. Erikson described this stage as a sort of 'entrance to life'. This correlates with Freud's psychosexual Latency stage when sexual motives and concerns are largely repressed while the young person concentrates on work and skills development. A child who experiences the satisfaction of achievement - of anything positive - will move towards the successful negotiation of this crisis stage. A child who experiences failure at school tasks and work, or worse still who is denied the opportunity to discover and develop their own capabilities and strengths and unique potential, quite naturally is prone to feeling inferior and useless.
Engaging with others and using tools or technology are also important aspects of this stage. It is like a rehearsal for being productive and being valued at work in later life. Inferiority is feeling useless; unable to contribute, unable to cooperate or work in a team to create something, with the low self-esteem that accompanies such feelings. Erikson knew this over fifty years ago. How is it that the people in charge of children's education still fail to realise this? Develop the child from within. Help them to find and excel at what they are naturally good at, and then they will achieve the sense of purpose and industry on which everything else can then be built.
Identity v Role Confusion 'To be oneself or not to be ' 'To share being oneself' To be yourself and to share this with others. Affirmation or otherwise of how you see yourself. Identity means essentially how a person sees themselves in relation to their world. It's a sense of self or individuality in the context of life and what lies ahead. Role Confusion is the negative perspective - an absence of identity - meaning that the person cannot see clearly or at all who they are and how they can relate positively with their environment.
This stage coincides with puberty or adolescence, and the reawakening of the sexual urge whose dormancy typically characterises the previous stage. Young people struggle to belong and to be accepted and affirmed, and yet also to become individuals. In itself, this is a big dilemma, aside from all the other distractions and confusions experienced at this life stage. Erikson later replaced the term 'Role Confusion' with 'Identity Diffusion'. In essence, they mean the same. Intimacy v Isolation 'To lose and find oneself in another' Reciprocal love for and with another person. Intimacy means the process of achieving relationships with family and marital or mating partner s.
Erikson explained this stage also in terms of sexual mutuality - the giving and receiving of physical and emotional connection, support, love, comfort, trust, and all the other elements that we would typically associate with healthy adult relationships conducive to mating and child-rearing. There is a strong reciprocal feature in the intimacy experienced during this stage - giving and receiving - especially between sexual or marital partners. Isolation conversely means being and feeling excluded from the usual life experiences of dating and mating and mutually loving relationships. This logically is characterised by feelings of loneliness, alienation, social withdrawal or non-participation. Erikson also later correlated this stage with the Freudian Genitality sexual stage, which illustrates the difficulty in equating Freudian psychosexual theory precisely to Erikson's model.
There is a correlation but it is not an exact fit. Generativity v Stagnation 'To make be' 'To take care of' Unconditional, non-reciprocating care of one's children, or other altruistic outlets Generativity derives from the word generation, as in parents and children, and specifically the unconditional giving that characterises positive parental love and care for their offspring. Erikson acknowledged that this stage also extends to other productive activities - work and creativity for example - but given his focus on childhood development, and probably the influence of Freudian theory, Erikson's analysis of this stage was strongly oriented towards parenting.
Generativity potentially extends beyond one's own children, and also to all future generations, which gives the model ultimately a very modern globally responsible perspective. Positive outcomes from this crisis stage depend on contributing positively and unconditionally. We might also see this as an end of self-interest. Having children is not a prerequisite for Generativity, just as being a parent is no guarantee that Generativity will be achieved. Caring for children is the common Generativity scenario, but success at this stage actually depends on giving and caring - putting something back into life, to the best of one's capabilities. Stagnation is an extension of Isolation which turns inward in the form of self-interest and self-absorption.
It's the disposition that represents feelings of selfishness, self-indulgence, greed, lack of interest in young people and future generations, and the wider world. Erikson later used the term 'Self-Absorption' instead of 'Stagnation' and then seems to have settled in later work with the original 'Stagnation'. Integrity v Despair ''To be, through having been 'To face not being' To be peaceful and satisfied with one's life and efforts, and to be accepting that life will end. This is a review and closing stage. The previous stage is actually a culmination of one's achievement and contribution to descendants, and potentially future generations everywhere.
He also continued to use the shorter form 'Integrity v Despair'. The ego-ideal includes the set of rules for the appropriate behaviour. Here, behaviour is influenced by the authority figures such as parents and teachers. People experience the feeling of accomplishment and pride in fulfilling this set of rules. The ego-ideal is also considered as the ideal image we have in our minds about ourselves. The conscience involves the set of rules for behaviour that is considered as bad. Doing things that are considered as bad as per the conscience leads to a guilty feeling.
All the three components, i. Sometimes your decisions are based on fulfilling your own needs id , i. The id plays an important role in taking actions to fulfil personal needs, and the ego helps in taking action in a realistic and socially acceptable way, and the superego helps to take morally appropriate decisions. It is difficult to make a balance in all these components; hence the conflict is often seen. Freud proposed the term ego-strength and said that those who have high ego strength can easily make a balance between the id and the superego, and can tackle the various conflicting situation, while those with the low ego-strength finds it difficult to balance these components.
The ego of the person tries to find the compromise between the id and the superego. Let us understand it with an example, a teenage girl named Diana has a dieting plan for several months as she wants to lose weight. In this situation, the superego of Diana will influence her to not eat the junk food and rather go for the 60 minutes daily treadmill routines; however, her id will influence her to eat her favourite pizza and skips the working session for one day.
This is how the ego manages the conflict between the id and the superego. People are simply actors in the drama of their own minds, pushed by desires, pulled by coincidence. Underneath the surface, our personality represents the power struggle going on deep within us. Sigmund Freud explained his model of the psyche and personality by comparing it to an iceberg. According to him, the conscious thoughts of the person are represented by the tip of the iceberg as we are aware of our conscious thoughts, and the tip of the iceberg is clearly visible from the outside. The preconscious mind is represented by the area just below the waterline. As we are not consciously aware of the effect of the id energy natural desires, thoughts, or feelings on our behaviour, hence the id is represented under the unconscious part.
The ego is the part of each three types of awareness, but it majorly contributes to the conscious and the preconscious part than the unconscious part. The superego consists of all three levels of awareness and hence comprises the entire iceberg. As we have discussed above, trying to make a balance between the id, ego, and the superego leads to conflict, and these internal conflicts increase the level of anxiety of an individual. Freud proposed that anxiety arises due to the inability of the ego to balance between instant gratification id and maintaining moral values and norms superego. To manage conflicts and anxiety, we use the defence mechanism; defence mechanisms are the particular behaviour of the individual to get rid of the anxiety in a particular situation.
People usually are not aware of the moment that they are consciously using defence mechanics to deal with their negative feelings. These mechanisms could either be positive or negative according to the behaviour of the person. Here are some commonly used defence mechanisms. Refusing to accept very obvious and real events because they are uncomfortable or displeasing. However, he refuses to admit it and argues that he seldom drinks only to lowers his stress level. Trying to reduce the anxiety by behaving differently or believing in certain factors or views that are opposite to your real thoughts or feelings.
For example, a boy has a crush on a girl, but she is married. Hence, he tries to reduce his anxiety by saying or trying to believe himself that she is a bad girl and not suitable for him. Attempting to justify the unacceptable or inappropriate behaviour, feelings, or thoughts with some self-serving reasons or explanations. For example, a boy failed his history exam as he did not study and attended full classes, but he explained to his parents that he failed the exam because the teacher does not like him.
Hence, he unconsciously projects his feelings on his wife that she is already cheating on him, and she is unfaithful. He reaches home and releases his frustrations at his younger brother. For example, a boy witnessed a fire accident that burned his house into ashes; it happened when he was nine years of age. However, even now, as an adult, he does not remember this traumatic event as he has repressed this event into his unconscious. Dissociating yourself from your actual personality and thinking and behaving entirely different from your usual personality to deal with the emotional stress. People use this mechanism when they become unable to bear their thoughts, memories, or feelings of their real world.
They start living in a world that they created in their own mind to get rid of the anxiety. Returning to a far less mature stage of psychological development for coping with the undesirable situation. Redirecting unacceptable feelings, thoughts, or desires, through socially acceptable behaviour. For example, a man desires revenge from the drunk truck driver who is responsible for the death of his only child. Sigmund Freud proposed that the interactions between the three major components of the human mind id, ego, superego develops through the five psychosexual stages of development. He explained personality development through the five stages, where each stage is associated with a specific erogenous zone; erogenous zones are considered as the particular areas of the body that are sensitive to stimulation.
The child may get fixated at one stage if the needs or desires of the child are over gratified or are leading to frustration at that particular stage. It is the first stage of psychosexual development, and it lasts up to the age of 18 months. The super ego functions at a conscious level. It serves as a type of screening center for what is going on. It is at this level that society and parental guidance is weighed against personal pleasure and gain as directed by ones id. Obviously, this puts in motion situations ripe for conflict. Much like a judge in a trial, once experiences are processed through the superego and the id they fall into the ego to mediate a satisfactory outcome. Originally, Freud used the word ego to mean a sense of self, but later revised it to mean a set of psychic functions such as judgment, tolerance, reality testing, control, planning, defense, synthesis of information, intellectual functioning, and memory.
The egocentric center of the human universe, Freud believed that within this one level, the id is constantly fighting to have our way in everything we undertake. So where does this leave us? It could have been entitled Ode to the Id. There are many mental illnesses that place the id in the forefront decision making. In particular, there are those whose lives are lived on a totally narcissistic level. Then there are those with anti-social personalities, psychotic like illnesses, and more. In the world of Freud, it is the neurotic person that is most affected by the principles of his theory. As a result Freud laid out his plan for treatment: psychoanalysis. The treatment has been in use for many years with many adaptations given to it.
On the plus side, psychoanalysis do present a client with the structure and time to resolve neurotic issues. On the negative side there is always expressed concern over the cost.Erikson later refined 'Industry' to 'Industriousness', Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality probably conveys a fuller meaning. The word 'psychosocial' is Erikson's term, effectively from the words psychological mind and social relationships. This stage is where a child learns an attachment Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality to their caregiver. There are eight stages over a lifespan showing Julius Caesar And Palpatine Comparison developmentThe main elements behind his Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality is the identity of ones egoAccording to his theory when conflicts arise people have the opportunity to grow Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality fail equally. The little Gender Roles In Chinua Achebes Things Fall Apart at this stage may lead to the development of anal-character Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality personality traits of compulsiveness or rigidity, Sigmund Freud And Eriksons Theory Of Personality over gratification at this stage may result in the traits like short-tempered, untidiness, and narcissism personality.